Abstract:
A necessary and sufficient condition for the associated sequence of functionals to a complete minimal sequence to be a Banach frame has been given. We give the definition of a weak-exact Banach frame, and observe that an exact Banach frame is weak-exact. An example of a weak-exact Banach frame which is not exact has been given. A necessary and sufficient condition for a Banach frame to be a weak-exact Banach frame has been obtained. Finally, a necessary condition for the perturbation of a retro Banach frame by a finite number of linearly independent vectors to be a retro Banach frame has been given.

Abstract:
The depth of a visible surface of a scene is the distance between the surface and the sensor. Recovering depth information from two-dimensional images of a scene is an important task in computer vision that can assist numerous applications such as object recognition, scene interpretation, obstacle avoidance, inspection and assembly. Various passive depth computation techniques have been developed for computer vision applications. They can be classified into two groups. The first group operates using just one image. The second group requires more than one image which can be acquired using either multiple cameras or a camera whose parameters and positioning can be changed. This project is aimed to find the real depth of the object from the camera which had been used to click the photograph. An n-degree polynomial was formulated, which maps the pixel depth of an image to the real depth. In order to find the coefficients of the polynomial, an experiment was carried out for a particular lens and thus, these coefficients are a unique feature of a particular camera. The procedure explained in this report is a monocular approach for estimation of depth of a scene. The idea involves mapping the Pixel Depth of the object photographed in the image with the Real Depth of the object from the camera lens with an interpolation function. In order to find the parameters of the interpolation function, a set of lines with predefined distance from camera is used, and then the distance of each line from the bottom edge of the picture (as the origin line) is calculated.

Ochratoxin-A[7-(L-β-phenylalanylcarbonyl)-carboxyl-5-chloro-8-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-3R-methyl-isocumarin, OTA] is a common food contaminant mycotoxin that enters the human body through the consumption of improperly stored food products. Upon ingestion, it leads to immuno-suppression and immuno-toxicity. OTA has been known to produce nephrotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic activity (via oxidative DNA damage) in several species. This review introduces potentials of electrochemical biosensor to provide breakthroughs in OTA detection through improved selectivity and sensitivity and also the current approaches for detecting OTA in food products.

Abstract:
Phytomedicines based on principles of Ayurveda are need of the hour and is more feasible than allopathic drugs which is not only more expensive in terms of “leads” but is also associated with many unwanted effects. Ethnopharmacological usage and the literature review revealed that the Alangium salvifolium seeds (Ankola) have significant antidiabetic activity. After the detailed study of powder of ethanolic extract of seeds of Alangium salvifolium Linn., a formulation using the plant material was prepared, to made the formulation more acceptable and justified for diabetics, an excipient having nutraceutical value like soy was also incorporated, the formulation was evaluated and standardized as per the pharmacopoeial standards. The results of preformulation studies revealed that all the values were within acceptable limit. Formulation showed appreciable hardness characteristics (3.25±0.57), which facilitates its fast disintegration. The friability (0.29±0.03) of formulation indicated that the tablets were mechanically stable. As the average weight of tablets was 340 mg, the acceptable weight variation range is ±7%. Hence the entire formulated tablet passed the weight variation test. The disintegration time of formulations was more than 1 minute. Thus the claims made by the traditional Indian systems of medicine regarding the use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes stands confirmed. The final conclusion drawn from the above mentioned data is that the possible use of these economical and relatively non toxic, non-hazardous natural remedies of plant origin may further be explored as they are devoid of major side effects associated with synthetic agents.

Abstract:
Wilson frames as a generalization of Wilson bases have been defined and studied. We give necessary condition for a Wilson system to be a Wilson frame. Also, sufficient conditions for a Wilson system to be a Wilson Bessel sequence are obtained. Under the assumption that the window functions and for odd and even indices of are the same, we obtain sufficient conditions for a Wilson system to be a Wilson frame (Wilson Bessel sequence). Finally, under the same conditions, a characterization of Wilson frame in terms of Zak transform is given. 1. Introduction In 1946, Gabor [1] proposed a decomposition of a signal in terms of elementary signals, which displays simultaneously the local time and frequency content of the signal, as opposed to the classical Fourier transform which displays only the global frequency content for the entire signal. On the basis of this development, in 1952, Duffin and Schaeffer [2] introduced frames for Hilbert spaces to study some deep problems in nonharmonic Fourier series. In fact, they abstracted the fundamental notion of Gabor for studying signal processing. Janssen [3] showed that while being complete in , the set suggested by Gabor is not a Riesz basis. This apparent failure of Gabor system was then rectified by resorting to the concept of frames. Since then, the theory of Gabor systems has been intimately related to the theory of frames, and many problems in frame theory find their origins in Gabor analysis. For example, the localized frames were first considered in the realm of Gabor frames [4–7]. Gabor frames have found wide applications in signal and image processing. In view of Balian-Low theorem [8], Gabor frame for (which is a Riesz basis) has bad localization properties in time or frequency. Thus, a system to replace Gabor systems which does not have bad localization properties in time and frequency was required. For more literature on Gabor frames one may refer to [8–12]. Wilson et al. [13, 14] suggested a system of functions which are localized around the positive and negative frequency of the same order. The idea of Wilson was used by Daubechies et al. [15] to construct orthonormal “Wilson bases” which consist of functions given by with a smooth well-localized window function . For such bases the disadvantage described in the Balian-Low theorem is completely removed. Independently from the work of Daubechies, Jaffard, and Journe, orthonormal local trigonometric bases consisting of the functions , , were introduced by Malvar [16]. Some generalizations of Malvar bases exist in [17, 18]. A drawback of Malvar's

Abstract:
In this paper morphological transformation of sisal fiber by graft
copolymerization with methyl acrylate and its binary mixture with acrylic acid
(AAc), vinyl acetate (VA) and n-butyl
acrylate (BuA), using FAS-KPS initiator, under influence of microwave radiations
has been reported. Optimum reaction conditions for maximum graft yield were
kept same as that in case of grafting of principal monomer. Maximum grafting
has been observed in case of sisal-g-poly(MA VA). The Graft copolymers thus
formed were characterized with SEM, TGA and XRD techniques. Thermal stability
has been found to increase and percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index
decrease upon grafting.

Abstract:
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless network that uses multi-hop peer-to- peer routing instead of static network infrastructure to provide network connectivity. MANETs have applications in rapidly deployed and dynamic military and civilian systems. The network topology in a MANET usually changes with time. Therefore, there are new challenges for routing protocols in MANETs since traditional routing protocols may not be suitable for MANETs. In recent years, a variety of new routing protocols targeted specifically at this environment have been developed, but little performance information on each protocol and no realistic performance comparison between them is available. This paper presents the results of a detailed packet-level simulation comparing three multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols that cover a range of design choices: DSR, NFPQR, and clustered NFPQR. By applying queuing methodology to the introduced routing protocol the reliability and throughput of the network is increased.

Abstract:
Coexistence by means of shared access is a cognitive radio application. The secondary user models the slotted primary users channel access as a Markov process. The model parameters, i.e, the state transition probabilities (alpha,beta) help secondary user to determine the channel occupancy, thereby enables secondary user to rank the primary user channels. These parameters are unknown and need to be estimated by secondary users for each channel. To do so, the secondary users have to sense all the primary user channels in every time slot, which is unrealistic for a large and sparsely allocated primary user spectrum. With no other choice left, the secondary user has to sense a channel at random time intervals and estimate the parametric information for all the channels using the observed slots.