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Some breeding and ecological aspects of heronry birds at Soor Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Agra, Northern India
Kaushalendra Kumar Jha
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Multi-species heronry at Soor Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Agra was studied for some breeding and ecological aspects. This is an established heronry in semi-arid region with less than 600 mm rainfall and temperature range of 2oC to 48oC. Two near threatened (Black-headed Ibis and Darter) and twelve least concerned species nested in colony during late summer and rainy season. They were categorized as the early arrivers (Black-crowned Night Heron, Little Egret, Cattle Egret, Darter and Grey Heron), late arrivers (Intermediate Egret, Indian Pond Heron, Great Egret, Black-headed Ibis, Purple Heron and Asian Openbill) and very late arrivers (Eurasian Spoonbill, Little Cormorant and Indian Cormorant). Total Nest occupancy at a time followed the rainfall pattern of the locality. Nest occupancy calendar was recorded in the form of pre-egg laying, egg laying and chick rearing dates for all the species. Nesting height-bird size hypothesis was checked as mixed results as the stratum specific birds proved the hypothesis right, while stratum interface birds suggested relook of the hypothesis. Heronry threat, disturbance behavior of the birds and disturbance distance were recorded. Buffer establishment and heronry protection measures are recommended for conservation of the source population. The breeding phenology data could be used as baseline as indicator tool for climate change impact.
Aquatic Food Plants and their Consumer Birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary, Hardoi, Northern India
Kaushalendra Kumar Jha
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2013,
Abstract: One of the Bird Sanctuaries of Uttar Pradesh, Sandi, was selected for studying some ecological aspects like, aquatic food plants, their food calendar and dependent birds of migratory as well as resident origin. The study site is considered as an ideal wetland. This is located at 27o15’ N and 79o55’ E. Thirty four food plant species were identified to be eaten by 16 birds.These plants were the species of Alloteropsis, Arundo, Azolla, Ceratophyllum, Chloris, Commelina, Cyperus, Echinochloa, Eichhornia, Eleocharis, Hydrilla, Ipomoea, Jussiaea, Lemna, Najas, Nelumbo, Nymphea, Nymphoides, Oryza, Pistia, Polygonum, Potamogeton, Scirpus, Spirodela, Trapa, Typha, Vallisneria, and Wolffia. Common consumer birds eating plant parts were Coot, Pochards, Teal, Wigeon, Gadwal, Gargany, Goose, Whistling-duck, Mallard, Pintail, Shoveler, and Swamphen. These are primarily the migratory birds except Coot, Whistling-duck and Swamphen. Spot-billed Duck, and Indian Moorhen were occasionally seen eating submerged hydrophytes and filamentous slimy green algae. On the basis of multi-strata growth of plants in the Sanctuary a wetland profile was prepared. Food calendar i.e., availability of palatable parts of plants during different months was recorded. Information collected in the study could be used for habitat management, especially the weed removal and ensuring food sustainability for the vegetarian birds.
Rating Curve Estimation of Surface Water Quality Data Using LOADEST  [PDF]
Bhasker Jha, Manoj Kumar Jha
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48099
Abstract:

Measurement of the nutrient concentrations in the stream is usually done on weekly, biweekly or monthly basis due to limited resources. There is need to estimate concentration and loads during the period when no data is available. The objectives of this study were to test the performance of a suite of regression models in predicting continuous water quality loading data and to determine systematic biases in the prediction. This study used the LOADEST model which includes several predefined regression models that specify the model form and complexity. Water quality data primarily nitrogen and phosphorus from five monitoring stations in the Neuse River Basin in North Carolina, USA were used in the development and analyses of rating curves. We found that LOADEST performed generally well in predicting loads and observation trends with general tendency/bias towards overestimation. Estimated Total Nitrogen (TN) varied from observation (“true” load) by -1% to 9%, but for the Total Phosphorus (TP) it ranged from -2% to 27%. Statistical evaluation using R2, Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) and Partial Load Factor (PLF) showed a strong correlation in prediction.

Association between Obesity and Selected Morbidities: A Study of BRICS Countries
Ankita Shukla, Kaushalendra Kumar, Abhishek Singh
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094433
Abstract: Objective Over the past few decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability. There is little evidence on obesity related co-morbidities in BRICS countries. The first objective is to examine the factors associated with overweight and obesity in four of the five BRICS countries (China, India, Russia and South Africa). The second is to examine the linkage of obesity with selected morbidities. Methods We used data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in China, India, Russia and South Africa during 2007–10. The morbidities included in the analysis are Hypertension, Diabetes, Angina, Stroke, Arthritis and Depression. Findings The prevalence of obesity was highest in South Africa (35%) followed by Russia (22%), China (5%) and India (3%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in females as compared to males in all the countries. While the wealth quintile was associated with overweight in India and China, engaging in work requiring physical activity was associated with obesity in China and South Africa. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with Hypertension and Diabetes in all the four countries. Obesity was also positively associated with Arthritis and Angina in China, Russia and South Africa. In comparison, overweight/obesity was not associated with Stroke and Depression in any of the four countries. Conclusion Obesity was statistically associated with Hypertension, Angina, Diabetes and Arthritis in China, Russia and South Africa. In India, obesity was associated only with Hypertension and Diabetes.
A Common Fixed Point Theorem for Two Pairs of Mappings in Dislocated Metric Space  [PDF]
Dinesh Panthi, Kanhaiya Jha, Pavan Kumar Jha, P. Sumati Kumari
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2015.52009
Abstract: Dislocated metric space differs from metric space for a property that self distance of a point needs not to be equal to zero. This property plays an important role to deal with the problems of various disciplines to obtain fixed point results. In this article, we establish a common fixed point theorem for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings which generalize and extend the result of Brain Fisher [1] in the setting of dislocated metric space with replacement of contractive constant by contractive modulus for which continuity of mappings is not necessary and compatible mappings by weakly compatible mappings.
A Multi-Agent Framework for Operation of a Smart Grid  [PDF]
Ruchi Gupta, Deependra Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B252
Abstract:

This paper presents the operation of a Multi-agent system (MAS) for the control of a smart grid. The proposed Multi-agent system consists of seven types of agents: Single Smart Grid Controller (SGC), Load Agents (LAGs), a Wind Turbine Agent (WTAG), Photo-Voltaic Agents (PVAGs), a Micro-Hydro Turbine Agent (MHTAG), Diesel Agents (DGAGs) and a Battery Agent (BAG). In a smart grid LAGs act as consumers or buyers, WTAG, PVAGs, MHTAG & DGAGs acts as producers or sellers and BAG act as producer/consumer or seller/buyer. The paper demonstrates the use of a Multi-agent system to control the smart grid in a simulated environment. In order to validate the performance of the proposed system, it has been applied to a simple model system with different time zone i.e. day time and night time and when power is available from the grid and when there is power shedding. Simulation results show that the proposed Multi-agent system can perform the operation of the smart grid efficiently.

Fabrication and Characterizations of Mechanical Properties of Al-4.5%Cu/10TiC Composite by In-situ Method  [PDF]
Anand Kumar, Manas Mohan Mahapatra, Pradeep Kumar Jha
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.1111113
Abstract: Addition of reinforcement such as TiC, SiC, Al2O3, TiO2, TiN, etc. to Aluminium matrix for enhancing the mechanical properties has been a well established fact. In-situ method of reinforcement of the Aluminium matrix with ceramic phase like Titanium Carbide (TiC) is well preferred over the Ex-situ method. In the present investigation, Al-Cu alloy (series of 2014 Aluminium alloy) was used as matrix and reinforced with TiC using In-situ process. The Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material, Al-4.5%Cu/10%TiC developed exhibited higher yield strength, ultimate strength and hardness as compared to Al-4.5%Cu alloy. Percentage increase in yield and ultimate tensile strengths were reported to be about 15% and 24% respectively whereas Vickers hardness increased by about 35%. The higher values in hardness indicated that the TiC particles contributed to the increase of hardness of matrix. Fractured surface of the tensile specimen of the composite material indicated presence of dimpled surface, indicating thereby a ductile type of fracture. During the fabrication of composite, reaction products such as Al3Ti, Al2Cu and Al3C4 were identified with various morphologies and sizes in metal matrix.
Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis
Manoj Kumar Jha
Water , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/w3020604
Abstract: This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS). Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.
An Automatic Face Recognition Technique Based on Face Contours and Face Profile Characterization Substrate
Avinash Kumar Jha
International Journal of Image Processing and Visual Communication , 2012, DOI: ijipvcv1i103
Abstract: Face recognition is such a challenging yet interesting problem that it has attracted researchers with different backgrounds: psychology, pattern recognition, neural networks, computer vision, and computer graphics.In this paper, an improved algorithm for automatic face recognition, based on the characterization of faces by their contours and profiles, is proposed. The main aim of this paper is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. Experiments show that the central vertical profile and the contour are both very useful features for face recognition. Illumination and pose remains a largely unsolved problem. Hence the pose compensation and illumination compensation are discussed in order to avoid their effects. Current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system. Hence the solutions for the problems of face recognition are also considered. Image morphing technique was introduced to get the better efficiency for the recognition of faces. A comparison to the principle component analysis was made to prove our algorithm is more robust, simpler and less computationally intensive.
Prospective Study of One Million Deaths in India: Rationale, Design, and Validation Results.
Jha,Gajalakshmi,Gupta,Kumar
PLOS Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Over 75% of the annual estimated 9.5 million deaths in India occur in the home, and the large majority of these do not have a certified cause. India and other developing countries urgently need reliable quantification of the causes of death. They also need better epidemiological evidence about the relevance of physical (such as blood pressure and obesity), behavioral (such as smoking, alcohol, HIV-1 risk taking, and immunization history), and biological (such as blood lipids and gene polymorphisms) measurements to the development of disease in individuals or disease rates in populations. We report here on the rationale, design, and implementation of the world's largest prospective study of the causes and correlates of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We will monitor nearly 14 million people in 2.4 million nationally representative Indian households (6.3 million people in 1.1 million households in the 1998-2003 sample frame and 7.6 million people in 1.3 million households in the 2004-2014 sample frame) for vital status and, if dead, the causes of death through a well-validated verbal autopsy (VA) instrument. About 300,000 deaths from 1998-2003 and some 700,000 deaths from 2004-2014 are expected; of these about 850,000 will be coded by two physicians to provide causes of death by gender, age, socioeconomic status, and geographical region. Pilot studies will evaluate the addition of physical and biological measurements, specifically dried blood spots. Preliminary results from over 35,000 deaths suggest that VA can ascertain the leading causes of death, reduce the misclassification of causes, and derive the probable underlying cause of death when it has not been reported. VA yields broad classification of the underlying causes in about 90% of deaths before age 70. In old age, however, the proportion of classifiable deaths is lower. By tracking underlying demographic denominators, the study permits quantification of absolute mortality rates. Household case-control, proportional mortality, and nested case-control methods permit quantification of risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study will reliably document not only the underlying cause of child and adult deaths but also key risk factors (behavioral, physical, environmental, and eventually, genetic). It offers a globally replicable model for reliably estimating cause-specific mortality using VA and strengthens India's flagship mortality monitoring system. Despite the misclassification that is still expected, the new cause-of-death data will be substantially better than that available previously.
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