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Pharmacogenomics in Therapeutics
Sandeep Kaushal
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2009,
Abstract: Pharmacogenomic testing improves drug safety bycomplimenting therapeutic drug monitoring as it accountsfor pharmacodynamic variability and helps in safeprescription of drugs. Thus pharmacogenomics aidspersonalized medicine in true sense.
Comments on the article ′Antimicrobial and analgesic activities of Wendlandia thyrsoidea leaf extracts′
Gupta Kanchan,Chopra S,Kaushal Sandeep
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract:
Safety and efficacy of clobazam versus phenytoin-sodium in the antiepileptic drug treatment of solitary cysticercus granulomas
Kaushal Sandeep,Rani Asha,Chopra Sarvesh,Singh Gagandeep
Neurology India , 2006,
Abstract: Background: It is now agreed that the prognosis of seizure disorder due to solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG) is generally good. However, the choice antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) remain empirical, with no comparative trials of different AEDs being available. Aims: To determine the safety and efficacy (measured by the incidence of ′treatment failure′) of clobazam in comparison to standard treatment with phenytoin-sodium for prevention of seizures in persons with solitary cysticercus granulomas (SCGs). Settings and Design: This pilot study was conducted in a neurology department of a medical college hospital in the form of a prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients with seizures due to SCG were randomized in an open-labeled trial to either, clobazam (1 mg/kg oral loading followed by 0.5 mg/kg/d) (n=21) or phenytoin (15 mg/kg, oral loading in 3 divided doses over 24 h, followed by 5 mg/kg/d) (n=27). They were followed over 6 months with the primary outcome measure being treatment failure (either discontinuation or modification of AEDs) due to either adverse effects or breakthrough seizures. Results: Treatment failures were noted to be significantly less common ( P =0.03) in the clobazam-treated group (n=1; 4.7%) than in phenytoin-treated group (n=9; 33.3%). These included one patient (4.7%) in the clobazam-group who had breakthrough seizures and 3 (11.1%) who had breakthrough seizures and 6 (22.2%) in the phenytoin-treated group who had adverse effects requiring treatment discontinuation. Conclusions: Clobazam was well tolerated, safe and more effective than phenytoin in the AED treatment of patients with SCG.
Prescribing pattern of antibiotics in the department of pediatrics in a tertiary care medical college hospital in Northern India
Ravika Kanish, Kanchan Gupta, Shivani Juneja, HS Bains, Sandeep Kaushal
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v5i4.10213
Abstract: Background: Systemic antibiotics account for more than one?third of all prescriptions in children; hence, antibiotic prescriptions in children are a major public health concern. Moreover, data regarding rational antibiotic use in children is very limited. Hence, it is essential that the antibiotic prescribing pattern be evaluated periodically for its rationality of use and cost. The aim of our study is to identify the prescribing pattern and to carry out direct cost analysis of antibiotic use in the patients admitted in pediatrics department of a tertiary care hospital of North India. Methods: The study was conducted for two months (June, July, 2012) in pediatric ward and ICU. The data regarding patient demographics and antibiotic use was collected daily in a structured proforma. A descriptive analysis of the data was done. Results: A total of one hundred and ninety one patients were enrolled, most of them belonging to the age group 2?14 years. Majority of them were male pediatric patients (75.9%) with mean age of 4.6 years. On an average 1.9 AMAs were prescribed per patient. The most common AMAs prescribed were cephalosporins followed by aminoglycosides. The preferred route of administration was injectable (92%). The average direct cost of treatment per patient was estimated to be Rs. 3338. The percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 58%. Conclusions: Male pediatric patients have better access to tertiary medical care as compared to female pediatric patients. The average number of anti?microbials prescribed is 1.9 which is not too high. Newer generation of antibiotics are more commonly prescribed leading to increased cost of therapy. This baseline study will help in formulating an antibiotic policy and standard treatment guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v5i4.10213 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 2014 Vol.5(4); 69-72
Evaluation of the Stability, Bioavailability, and Hypersensitivity of the Omega-3 Derived Anti-Leukemic Prostaglandin: Δ12-Prostaglandin J3
Avinash K. Kudva, Naveen Kaushal, Sonia Mohinta, Mary J. Kennett, Avery August, Robert F. Paulson, K. Sandeep Prabhu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080622
Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived endogenous cyclopentenone prostaglandin (CyPG) metabolite, Δ12-PGJ3, to selectively target leukemic stem cells, but not the normal hematopoietic stems cells, in in vitro and in vivo models of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Here we evaluated the stability, bioavailability, and hypersensitivity of Δ12-PGJ3. The stability of Δ12-PGJ3 was evaluated under simulated conditions using artificial gastric and intestinal juice. The bioavailability of Δ12-PGJ3 in systemic circulation was demonstrated upon intraperitoneal injection into mice by LC-MS/MS. Δ12-PGJ3 being a downstream metabolite of PGD3 was tested in vitro using primary mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) and in vivo mouse models for airway hypersensitivity. ZK118182, a synthetic PG analog with potent PGD2 receptor (DP)-agonist activity and a drug candidate in current clinical trials, was used for toxicological comparison. Δ12-PGJ3 was relatively more stable in simulated gastric juice than in simulated intestinal juice that followed first-order kinetics of degradation. Intraperitoneal injection into mice revealed that Δ12-PGJ3 was bioavailable and well absorbed into systemic circulation with a Cmax of 263 μg/L at 12 h. Treatment of BMMCs with ZK118182 for 12 h resulted in increased production of histamine, while Δ12-PGJ3 did not induce degranulation in BMMCs nor increase histamine. In addition, in vivo testing for hypersensitivity in mice showed that ZK118182 induces higher airways hyperresponsiveness when compared Δ12-PGJ3 and/or PBS control. Based on the stability studies, our data indicates that intraperitoneal route of administration of Δ12-PGJ3 was favorable than oral administration to achieve effective pharmacological levels in the plasma against leukemia. Δ12-PGJ3 failed to increase histamine and IL-4 in BMMCs, which is in agreement with reduced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. In summary, our studies suggest Δ12-PGJ3 to be a promising bioactive metabolite for further evaluation as a potential drug candidate for treating CML.
Impact of malathion on some haematological parameters of Channa punctatus (Bloch)
Kaushal DUBE,kaushal DUBE
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i9.711
Abstract: Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used in agricultural and non agricultural purposes in India, creates a serious threat to the environment as well as target and non target organisms. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of malathion on some haematological parameters of Channa punctatus. Channa punctatus was treated with malathion and LC50 value for 96 hours was calculated following probit analysis methods. Channa punctatus was exposed to sublethal concentration of malathion (0.8 ppm). The study revealed a declining trend of RBC, Haemoglobin and increasing trend of WBC indicated toxic effect of malathion on Channa punctatus.
Influence of Supernova SN Ia Rate and the Early Star Formation Rate on the Galactic Chemical Evolution  [PDF]
Sandeep Sahijpal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33038
Abstract:

Based on the recently developed numerical approach to understand the formation and the chemical evolution of the milky-way galaxy in the solar neighborhood we study the influence of the supernova type SN Ia rates on the galactic chemical evolution. Supernova SN Ia plays an important role in producing the iron inventory of the galaxy. We also study the dependence of the chemical evolution on the star formation rate prevailing during the initial one billion years of the evolution of the galaxy. This era marks the formation of the galactic halo and the thick disk. A comparison of the elemental abundance distributions of the dwarf stars in the solar neighborhood is made among the various models simulated in the present work. In order to explain the majority of the observed elemental evolutionary trends, specifically those related with the galactic evolution of iron and oxygen, it would be essential to incorporate a major component of prompt SN Ia to the galactic evolution. The prompt SN Ia would produce significant fraction of SN Ia within the initial ~100 million years from the time of star formation. The essential requirement of prompt SN Ia would result in a significant enhancement of SN Ia rates during the earliest epoch of the galaxy. The elemental evolutionary trends also favor an enhancement in the star formation rate during the initial one billion years of the galaxy at least by a factor of three compared to the trend prevailing during the latter evolutionary time of the galaxy.

Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution  [PDF]
Sandeep Sahijpal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.43045
Abstract:

The manner the galaxy accretes matter, along with the star formation rates at different epochs, influences the evolution of the stable isotopic inventories of the galaxy. A detailed analysis is presented here to study the dependence of the galactic chemical evolution on the accretion scenario of the galaxy along with the star formation rate during the early accretionary phase of the galactic thick disk and thin disk. Our results indicate that a rapid early accretion of the galaxy during the formation of the galactic thick disk along with an enhanced star formation rate in the early stages of the galaxy accretion could explain the majority of the galactic chemical evolution trends of the major elements. Further, we corroborate the recent suggestions regarding the formation of a massive galactic thick disk rather than the earlier assumed low mass thick disk.

Use of patch testing for identifying allergen causing chronic urticaria
Verma Kaushal
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2008,
Abstract:
Type I hypersensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus in patients with parthenium dermatitis
Verma Kaushal
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2007,
Abstract:
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