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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325828 matches for " Kaushal S. Gandhi "
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Novel Approaches to Detect Serum Biomarkers for Clinical Response to Interferon-β Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis
Kaushal S. Gandhi,Fiona C. McKay,Eve Diefenbach,Ben Crossett,Stephen D. Schibeci,Robert N. Heard,Graeme J. Stewart,David R. Booth,Jonathan W. Arthur
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010484
Abstract: Interferon beta (IFNβ) is the most common immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, some patients fail to respond to treatment. In this study, we identified putative clinical response markers in the serum and plasma of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with IFNβ. In a discovery-driven approach, we use 2D-difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to identify putative clinical response markers and apply power calculations to identify the sample size required to further validate those markers. In the process we have optimized a DIGE protocol for plasma to obtain cost effective and high resolution gels for effective spot comparison. APOA1, A2M, and FIBB were identified as putative clinical response markers. Power calculations showed that the current DIGE experiment requires a minimum of 10 samples from each group to be confident of 1.5 fold difference at the p<0.05 significance level. In a complementary targeted approach, Cytometric Beadarray (CBA) analysis showed no significant difference in the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-8, MIG, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1α, between clinical responders and non-responders, despite the association of these proteins with IFNβ treatment in MS.
MicroRNAs miR-17 and miR-20a Inhibit T Cell Activation Genes and Are Under-Expressed in MS Whole Blood
Mathew B. Cox,Murray J. Cairns,Kaushal S. Gandhi,Adam P. Carroll,Sophia Moscovis,Graeme J. Stewart,Simon Broadley,Rodney J. Scott,David R. Booth,Jeannette Lechner-Scott
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012132
Abstract: It is well established that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated disease. Little is known about what drives the differential control of the immune system in MS patients compared to unaffected individuals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding nucleic acids that are involved in the control of gene expression. Their potential role in T cell activation and neurodegenerative disease has recently been recognised and they are therefore excellent candidates for further studies in MS. We investigated the transcriptome of currently known miRNAs using miRNA microarray analysis in peripheral blood samples of 59 treatment na?ve MS patients and 37 controls. Of these 59, 18 had a primary progressive, 17 a secondary progressive and 24 a relapsing remitting disease course. In all MS subtypes miR-17 and miR-20a were significantly under-expressed in MS, confirmed by RT-PCR. We demonstrate that these miRNAs modulate T cell activation genes in a knock-in and knock-down T cell model. The same T cell activation genes are also up-regulated in MS whole blood mRNA, suggesting these miRNAs or their analogues may provide useful targets for new therapeutic approaches.
Security Issues of Routing Protocols in MANETs
Kaushal Gandhi,Rajneesh Narula,Sumeer Khullar,Anish Arora
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2012,
Abstract: There are a number of routing protocols developed by researchers. Due to the nature of ad hoc networks, secure routing is an important area of research in developing secure routing protocols. Although researchers have proposed several secure routing protocols, their resistance towards various types of security attacks and efficiency are primary points of concern in implementing these protocols. This paper presents some of the available secure routing protocols and most common attack patterns against ad hoc networks. Routing protocols are subjected to case studies against the most commonly identified attack patterns such as: denial-of-service attack, tunneling, spoofing, black hole attack and wormhole attack etc. In MANET, the nodes also function as routers that discover and maintain routes to other nodes in the network. Establishing an optimal and efficient route between the communicating parties is the primary concern of the routing protocols of MANET. Any attack in routing phase may disrupt the overall communication and the entire network can be paralyzed. Thus, security in network layer plays an important role in the security of the whole network. A number of attacks in network layer have been identified and studied in security research. An attacker can absorb network traffic, inject themselves into the path between the source and destination and thus control the network traffic flow.
Solutions of Certain Types of Linear and Nonlinear Diffusion-Reaction Equations in One Dimension
R. S. Kaushal
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: With a view to having further insight into the mathematical content of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian associaterd with the diffusion-reaction (D-R) equation in one dimension, we investigate (a) the solitary wave solutions of certain types of its nonlinear versions, and (b) the problem of real eigenvalue spectrum associated with its linear version or with this class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. For the case (a) we use the standard techniques to handle the quadratic and cubic nonlinearities in the D-R equation whereas for the case (b) a newly proposed method, based on an extended complex phase space, is employed. For a particular class of solutions, an Ermakov system of equations is also found for the linear case. Further, corresponding to the 'classical' version of the above one-dimensional complex Hamiltonian, an equivalent integrable system of two, two-dimensional real Hamiltonians is suggested.
Delay Resistant Transport Protocol for Deep Space Communication  [PDF]
Mohanchur Sarkar, Kaushal K. Shukla, Kankar S. Dasgupta
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.42015
Abstract: The throughput of conventional transport protocols suffers significant degradation with the increased Round Trip Time (RTT) typically seen in deep space communication. This paper proposes a Delay Resistant Transport Protocol (DR-TCP) for point-to-point communication in deep space exploration missions. The issues related to deep space communication protocol design and the areas where modifications are necessary are investigated, and a protocol is designed that can provide good throughput to the applications using a deep space link. The proposed protocol uses a cross layer based approach to find the allocated bandwidth and avoids initial bandwidth estimation. A novel timeout algorithm estimates the timeout duration with an objective to maximize throughput and avoid spurious timeout events. The protocol is evaluated through extensive simulations in ns2 considering high RTT values typically seen in Lunar and Mars Exploration Networks under different conditions of packet error rates. DR-TCP provides a significant increase in the throughput as compared to traditional transport protocols under the same conditions. A novel adaptive redundant retransmission algorithm is also presented to take care of the high PER in deep space links. The effect of the Retransmission Frequency has been critically analyzed considering both Lunar and Deep Space scenarios under different levels of PER. The results are very encouraging even in high error conditions. The protocol exhibits a RTT independent behavior in throughput, which is the most desirable quality of a protocol for deep space communication.
Study of degradation profile and development of stability indicating methods for cefixime trihydrate
Gandhi S,Rajput S
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The degradation behavior of cefixime trihydrate was investigated under different stress conditions of acidic hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis and oxidation using spectrophotometry. Stability indicating spectrophotometric methods were developed that could separate the drug from its degradation products formed under these stress conditions. The UV spectral characteristics of the drug and degraded products were quite different and zero and first order derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods were used to study the extent of degradation. Cefixime trihydrate was found to degrade extensively under experimental conditions. The methods were validated by establishing the linearity, inter and intraday precision, accuracy, selectivity and specificity.
A Transcription Factor Map as Revealed by a Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis of Whole-Blood mRNA Transcriptome in Multiple Sclerosis
Carlos Riveros,Drew Mellor,Kaushal S. Gandhi,Fiona C. McKay,Mathew B. Cox,Regina Berretta,S. Yahya Vaezpour,Mario Inostroza-Ponta,Simon A. Broadley,Robert N. Heard,Stephen Vucic,Graeme J. Stewart,David W. Williams,Rodney J. Scott,Jeanette Lechner-Scott,David R. Booth,Pablo Moscato
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014176
Abstract: Several lines of evidence suggest that transcription factors are involved in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) but complete mapping of the whole network has been elusive. One of the reasons is that there are several clinical subtypes of MS and transcription factors that may be involved in one subtype may not be in others. We investigate the possibility that this network could be mapped using microarray technologies and contemporary bioinformatics methods on a dataset derived from whole blood in 99 untreated MS patients (36 Relapse Remitting MS, 43 Primary Progressive MS, and 20 Secondary Progressive MS) and 45 age-matched healthy controls.
A Polymorphism in the HLA-DPB1 Gene Is Associated with Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis
Judith Field,Sharon R. Browning,Laura J. Johnson,Patrick Danoy,Michael D. Varney,Brian D. Tait,Kaushal S. Gandhi,Jac C. Charlesworth,Robert N. Heard,Graeme J. Stewart,Trevor J. Kilpatrick,Simon J. Foote,Melanie Bahlo,Helmut Butzkueven,James Wiley,David R. Booth,Bruce V. Taylor,Matthew A. Brown,Justin P. Rubio,Jim Stankovich
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013454
Abstract: We conducted an association study across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex to identify loci associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Comparing 1927 SNPs in 1618 MS cases and 3413 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven SNPs that were independently associated with MS conditional on the others (each ). All associations were significant in an independent replication cohort of 2212 cases and 2251 controls () and were highly significant in the combined dataset (). The associated SNPs included proxies for HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DRB1*03:01, and SNPs in moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-A*02:01, HLA-DRB1*04:01 and HLA-DRB1*13:03. We also found a strong association with rs9277535 in the class II gene HLA-DPB1 (discovery set , replication set , combined ). HLA-DPB1 is located centromeric of the more commonly typed class II genes HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1. It is separated from these genes by a recombination hotspot, and the association is not affected by conditioning on genotypes at DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1. Hence rs9277535 represents an independent MS-susceptibility locus of genome-wide significance. It is correlated with the HLA-DPB1*03:01 allele, which has been implicated previously in MS in smaller studies. Further genotyping in large datasets is required to confirm and resolve this association.
Dexamethasone cyclophosphamide pulse therapy: Some suggestions for modifications
Gandhi Vijay,Bhattacharya S
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2004,
Poly-hill Sign In Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy
Pradhan S,Gandhi Sanjay
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2003,
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