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OALib Journal期刊

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Formulation and evaluation of glimepiride solid dispersion tablets
Gill Bhawandeep,Kaur Tejvir,Kumar Sandeep,Gupta G
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Glimepiride (GMP) is poorly water soluble drug, so solubility is the main constraint for oral its bioavailability. An attempt has been made to increase the solubility of this model drug by formulating solid dispersion (SD) using Poloxamer 188 (PXM 188) as polymer and then formulating SDs tablets of the best formulation of SDs. Tablet formulations were prepared by direct compression technique using superdisintegrant croscarmellose sodium in different concentrations. SDs were evaluated for XRD, SEM, in vitro dissolution profiles, and dissolution efficiency, and developed tablet formulations were evaluated for various pharmaceutical characteristics viz. hardness, % friability, weight variation, drug content, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles, and dissolution efficiency. Among different formulations of SDs, SD containing drug is to polymer ratio 1 : 4 gives best dissolution profile and dissolution efficiency and among tablet formulations, formulations containing 5% croscarmellose sodium gives best disintegration and dissolution profiles compared with other formulations. Results showed that poloxamer is a promising polymer for enhancing the solubility of GMP.
Study of Swift Heavy Ion Modified Conducting Polymer Composites for Application as Gas Sensor
Alok Srivastava,Virendra Singh,Chetna Dhand,Manindar Kaur,Tejvir Singh,Karin Witte,Ulrich W. Scherer
Sensors , 2006, DOI: 10.3390/s6040262
Abstract: A polyaniline-based conducting composite was prepared by oxidativepolymerisation of aniline in a polyvinylchloride (PVC) matrix. The coherent free standingthin films of the composite were prepared by a solution casting method. The polyvinylchloride-polyaniline composites exposed to 120 MeV ions of silicon with total ion fluenceranging from 1011 to 1013 ions/cm2, were observed to be more sensitive towards ammoniagas than the unirradiated composite. The response time of the irradiated composites wasobserved to be comparably shorter. We report for the first time the application of swiftheavy ion modified insulating polymer conducting polymer (IPCP) composites for sensingof ammonia gas.
Advances in Intrusion Detection System for WLAN  [PDF]
Ravneet Kaur
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2011.13007
Abstract: A wireless network is not as secure as compare the wired network because the data is transferred on air so any intruder can use hacking techniques to access that data. Indeed it is difficult to protect the data and provide the user a secure information system for lifetime. An intrusions detection system aim to detect the different attacks against network and system. An intrusion detection system should be capable for detecting the misuse of the network whether it will be by the authenticated user or by an attacker. Cross layer based technique help to make decision based on two layer physical layer where we compute RSS value and on MAC layer where one compute RTS-CTS time taken. This will reduce the positive false rate.They detect attempts and active misuse either by legitimate users of the information systems or by external. The paper has higlighted the advances in intrusion detection in wireless local area network.
Role of Cross Layer Based Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Domain  [PDF]
Ravneet Kaur
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.52010
Abstract: Wireless mesh networks are very common both for organizations and individuals. Many laptops, computers have wireless cards pre-installed for buyer. However a wireless networking has many security issues. An intrusions detection system aim to detect the different attacks against network and system. An intrusion detection system should be capable for detecting the misuse of the network whether it will be by the authenticated user or by an attacker. They detect attempts and active misuse either by legitimate users of the information systems or by external. The present paper deals with cross layer based intrusion detection system for wireless domain—a critical anlaysis. The present paper deals with role of cross layer based intrusion detection system for wireless domain.
Stem Reserve Mobilization and Sink Activity in Wheat under Drought Conditions  [PDF]
Anil K. Gupta, Kamaljit Kaur, Narinder Kaur
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.21010
Abstract: The effect of water deficit on stem reserve mobilization and sink activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, viz., C306 (drought tolerant) and PBW343 (drought sensitive) was studied. Drought was maintained in pot raised plants by withholding irrigation at 95 days after sowing (DAS), i.e. just five days before the initiation of anthesis. Drought induced a significant reduction in mean biomass of all the internodes of sensitive cultivar as compared to those of tolerant one. Mobilized dry matter and mobilization efficiency were observed to be higher in the internodes of tolerant cultivar, both under control and stress conditions, which resulted in enhanced translocation of stem reserves to the grains. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which mainly occur as fructans, were observed to be higher in the internodes of tolerant cultivar than those of sensitive one. When drought was applied, fructans were mobilized more effectively from the internodes of tolerant cultivar. A significantly higher sucrose synthase activity in the grains of tolerant cultivar, under drought conditions, increased the sink strength by unloading the assimilates in the sink, thereby increasing further mobilization of assimilates to the grains. Grains of sensitive cultivar attained maturity much earlier as compared to the tolerant one, both under control and stress conditions. The longer duration of grain maturation in tolerant cultivar supported enhanced mobilization of stem reserves, thus restricting heavy decrease in grain yield, under stress conditions, as compared to the sensitive cultivar. It may, therefore, be concluded that certain characteristics viz., enhanced capability of fructan storage, higher mobilization efficiency, stronger sink activity and longer duration of grain maturation might help the drought tolerant cultivar in coping the stress conditions
Body Composition, Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Level of Sedentary Adult Indian Women  [PDF]
Gurpreet Kaur, Kiran Bains, Harpreet Kaur
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.311206
Abstract: Age related changes in body composition are associated with long term dietary intake profiles. Age related increase in body fat is primarily attributed to decline in physical activity and basal metabolic rate as well as dietary intake. The study was designed to assess the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity level of sedentary adult women of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 152 sedentary adult women comprised of students and faculty from Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The relationship of body composition with dietary factors and physical activity level of women in four age groups i.e. 21 - 30, 31 - 40, 41 - 50 and 51 - 60 years was determined. A gradual increase (p ≤ 0.05) in anthropometric and body composition parameters such as weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, fat mass and visceral fat rating was observed with the advancement of age. The lean body mass was decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as the age progressed, the values for four age groups being 74.9, 68.9, 62.8 and 60.9%, respectively. Contrary to this fat mass increased with age, the corresponding values for four age groups being 15.7, 21.4, 26.6 and 29.2 kg, respectively. The percent adequacy of protein by four age groups was 69.6, 78.2, 80.0 and 66.3, respectively when compared to RDA while fat intake was much higher i.e. 245.5, 271.8, 288.4 and 250.8%, respectively. The energy intake was inadequate among all age groups, however, a significant (p ≤ 0.05) differ- ence was observed in daily energy consumption between the age groups. The mean physical activity level (PAL) of the subjects ranged between 1.49 - 1.60. The physical activity level values showed that majority of the subjects (87% - 94%) were having sedentary life style. Age is a crucial factor associated with body composition. A high fat mass and low lean body mass of the subjects was observed. Their diets were low in protein but high in fat. Majority of the subjects from different age groups had sedentary life style. A diet with higher protein and lesser fat combined with exercise can help in sustaining optimum body composition.
Rapid and Reliable Method of High-Quality RNA Extraction from Diverse Plants  [PDF]
Saroj Kumar Sah, Gurwinder Kaur, Amandeep Kaur
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521329
Abstract: The isolation of high quality RNA is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of RNA determines the reliability of downstream process like real time PCR. In this paper, we reported a high quality RNA extraction protocol for a variety of plant species. Our protocol is time effective than traditional RNA extraction methods. The method takes only an hour to complete the procedure. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate RNA quality and quantity. The extracted RNA was further used for cDNA synthesis, expression analysis and copy number determination through Real Time PCR. The results indicate that RNA was of good quality and fit for real time PCR. This high throughput plant RNA extraction protocol can be used to isolate high quality RNA from diverse plants for real time PCR and other downstream applications.
Expression Profiling Reveals Novel Hypoxic Biomarkers in Peripheral Blood of Adult Mice Exposed to Chronic Hypoxia
Matias Mosqueira, Gabriel Willmann, Ulrike Zeiger, Tejvir S. Khurana
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037497
Abstract: Hypoxia induces a myriad of changes including an increase in hematocrit due to erythropoietin (EPO) mediated erythropoiesis. While hypoxia is of importance physiologically and clinically, lacunae exist in our knowledge of the systemic and temporal changes in gene expression occurring in blood during the exposure and recovery from hypoxia. To identify these changes expression profiling was conducted on blood obtained from cohorts of C57Bl-10 wild type mice that were maintained at normoxia (NX), exposed for two weeks to normobaric chronic hypoxia (CH) or two weeks of CH followed by two weeks of normoxic recovery (REC). Using stringent bioinformatic cut-offs (0% FDR, 2 fold change cut-off), 230 genes were identified and separated into four distinct temporal categories. Class I) contained 1 transcript up-regulated in both CH and REC; Class II) contained 202 transcripts up-regulated in CH but down-regulated after REC; Class III) contained 9 transcripts down-regulated both in CH and REC; Class IV) contained 18 transcripts down-regulated after CH exposure but up-regulated after REC. Profiling was independently validated and extended by analyzing expression levels of selected genes as novel biomarkers from our profile (e.g. spectrin alpha-1, ubiquitin domain family-1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-1) by performing qPCR at 7 different time points during CH and REC. Our identification and characterization of these genes define transcriptome level changes occurring during chronic hypoxia and normoxic recovery as well as novel blood biomarkers that may be useful in monitoring a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with hypoxia.
Ventilatory Chemosensory Drive Is Blunted in the mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
Matias Mosqueira, Santhosh M. Baby, Sukhamay Lahiri, Tejvir S. Khurana
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069567
Abstract: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the DMD gene resulting in an absence of dystrophin in neurons and muscle. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of mortality and previous studies have largely concentrated on diaphragmatic muscle necrosis and respiratory failure component. Here, we investigated the integrity of respiratory control mechanisms in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Whole body plethysmograph in parallel with phrenic nerve activity recordings revealed a lower respiratory rate and minute ventilation during normoxia and a blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory reflex in response to mild levels of hypoxia together with a poor performance on a hypoxic stress test in mdx mice. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed low PaO2 and pH and high PaCO2 in mdx mice. To investigate chemosensory respiratory drive, we analyzed the carotid body by molecular and functional means. Dystrophin mRNA and protein was expressed in normal mice carotid bodies however, they are absent in mdx mice. Functional analysis revealed abnormalities in Dejours test and the early component of the hypercapnic ventilatory reflex in mdx mice. Together, these results demonstrate a malfunction in the peripheral chemosensory drive that would be predicted to contribute to the respiratory failure in mdx mice. These data suggest that investigating and monitoring peripheral chemosensory drive function may be useful for improving the management of DMD patients with respiratory failure.
A New Approach to Software Development Fusion Process Model  [PDF]
Rupinder Kaur, Jyotsna Sengupta
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.310117
Abstract: There are several software process models that have been proposed and are based on task involved in developing and maintaining software product. The large number of software projects not meeting their expectation in terms of functionality, cost, delivery schedule and effective project management appears to be lacking. In this paper, we present a new software fusion process model, which depicts the essential phases of a software project from initiate stage until the product is retired. Fusion is component based software process model, where each component implements a problem solving model. This approach reduces the risk associated with cost and time, as these risks will be limited to a component only and ensure the overall quality of software system by considering the changing requirements of customer, risk assessment, identification, evaluation and composition of relative concerns at each phase of development process.
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