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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401530 matches for " Katunga Musale M. Dieudonné "
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Adaptation and Participatory Evaluation of Shrub Forage Legumes in Highlands of Sud-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)  [PDF]
Katunga Musale M. Dieudonné
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106165
Abstract: Livestock in the highlands of DRC faces several constraints. It strongly decreased due to high rate of mortality, looting during the wars, lack of animal feeding and livestock still reared again under traditional system. However, shrub forage legumes can contribute to mitigate one part of these constraints and play an important role to improve livestock production. The objective of this study is to use for adaptation the improved shrub forage legumes previously tested by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Colombia in tropical Central Asia and Latin America whose ecological conditions are similar to those in DRC. Fifteen shrub forage legumes were randomly planted. With 3 replications, nine plantations were counted per specie or accession. The cutting period was for eight weeks. The best yield shrubs were in Mulungu L. diversifolia K782, L. diversifolia 22192 and in Nyangezi C. calothyrsus. The choice of the farmers in their participatory evaluation was generally in agreement with the agronomic trial outcomes.
Assessing Post-Conflict Challenges and Opportunities of the Animal-Agriculture System in the Alpine Region of Uvira District in Sud-Kivu Province, D. R. Congo  [PDF]
M. M. D. Katunga, J.-B. Muhigwa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520311
Abstract: The Alpine region of Uvira District in South-Kivu Province faces low agricultural productivity challenges largely due to human population pressure on the natural resource base. During the dry season, conflicts between crop farmers and livestock breeders are common. This region is located 2500 - 3020 m a.s.l. and is almost inaccessible due to poor road infrastructure. To understand the interactions between natural resources (forests, pastures, soils) and sedentary agriculture, and to propose solutions for sustainable natural resource management, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) sessions covering three farmer group interviews were conducted in July 2010 in Marungu, Kitembe and Kahololo location. The livelihoods of the Banyamulenge have been transformed from pastoralism to a sedentary system with the introduction of crop cultivation after 1980. Maize, bush beans and Irish potatoes are cultivated with limited success because of late crop maturity under the prevailing climatic conditions. Livestock, mainly cattle, sheep and goats is managed under extensive system, relying on natural pasture far from the human settlements. Livestock plays an important role to define people’s wealth and is mainly managed by men. There is a real need of forages during the dry season; however, cultivation of forages is unknown. On the other hand, pastures appear to be degenerating due to overgrazing. Access by farmers to efficient and effective agricultural extension services is fundamental in order to promote locally adapted and profitable crop and livestock production while at the same time, sustaining the productive resource base and security.
Agro-Ecological Adaptation and Participatory Evaluation of Multipurpose Tree and Shrub Legumes in Mid Altitudes of Sud-Kivu, D. R. Congo  [PDF]
M. M. D. Katunga, B. J. B. Muhigwa, K. J. C. Kashala, M. Kambuyi, N. Nyongombe, B. L. Maass, M. Peters
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513218

Livestock is traditionally managed in mixed crop-livestock production systems in Sud-Kivu, D. R. Congo. Currently, livestock production is facing numerous constraints due to wars and insecurity in the country, with looting of animals, demographic pressure on natural resources, and lack of extension services. Multipurpose trees and shrubs with adequate forage quality could help overcome dry-season feed shortage. The objective of this research was to assess the agro-ecological adaptability of selected forage tree and shrub legumes combined with farmer participatory evaluation. The study was carried out at two distinct mid-altitude sites in Sud-Kivu. Trees and shrubs were planted randomly in eleven lines, with each species/accession consisting of nine plants split into three replications. Following a standardization cut after one year of growth, regular biomass harvests were performed every eight weeks during one year; Desmodium and Flemingia were cut at 0.5 m above soil surface, while Leucaena and Calliandra at 1 m. Before every harvest, plant height was measured and number of stems counted. Fresh leaf and stem biomass were weighted, sub samples dried and leaves analyzed for nutritive value. Results from agronomic evaluation show that Leucaena diversifolia ILRI 15551 and Leucaena leucocephala had the highest yield in the rainy season on fertile soil; during dry season, Leucaena diversifolia ILRI 15551 was superior. On poor soil, Flemingia macrophylla

Testing Agro-Ecological Adaptation of Improved Herbaceous Forage Legumes in South-Kivu, D.R. Congo  [PDF]
M. M. D. Katunga, J. B. B. Muhigwa, K. J. C. Kashala, L. Ipungu, N. Nyongombe, B. L. Maass, M. Peters
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59153

In tropical african countries where livestock is either reared in herds on natural grasslands or individuallly tethered to herds on natural or spontaneous vegetation, the productivity is low, especially during the dry season. Using improved forages could play an important role in both enhancing livestock production and improving soil fertility and preventing from soil erosion. Eleven herbaceous forage legumes previously tested in tropical South America and South Asia by CIAT were tested in South-Kivu, D. R. Congo. Across sites, Stylosanthes guianensis, Desmodium uncinatum, Centrosema molle and Canavalia brasiliensis had a highest yield, nowhere Vigna unguiculata adapted. Differencial plant adaptation occured, e.g. Clitoria ternatea being well adaptated only in the midlands with good soils, where the mean of dry mater leaf yield was higher. Farmer evaluation emphazied overall biomass production with preference in the highlands, farmers chose Desmodium uncinatum

Corporate Groups under the Laws of Rwanda: An Economic Reality without Legal Identity  [PDF]
Dieudonné Nzafashwanayo
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.72010
Abstract: Corporate groups have become common in and dominate the business world. They emerge from reconfiguration of large companies into a multitude of subsidiaries from the simplest radial structure to the complex pyramidal and circular structures, in all structures, all companies within the group being ultimately held by a single parent company. Despite the omnipresence of corporate groups and their place in business world, their legal nature is yet to be seen whereas the use of this structure (corporate groups) to conduct business leads to tensions with traditional corporate law notions of each company being a separate legal entity and the blurring of lines of independence and modus operandi of corporate groups can be dangerous for creditors, employees, minority shareholders and pose challenges for regulators (such as taxman and anti-trust regulatory bodies) assessing the status of transactions conducted within the group. This article will discuss the notion of corporate groups under the laws of Rwanda and will argue that, albeit the fact that corporate groups (under traditional principles of corporate law) do not have legal existence, in some branches of law such as tax, anti-trust, employment, banking and finance law, the same have got a legal recognition and are treated as such. However, it will be submitted that the tenor of and challenges posed by corporate groups call for a clear recognition and stand of the legislator on the legal nature of corporate groups.
Production Systems and Contribution on Characterization of Local Chickens in Smallholder Farmer in Sud-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)  [PDF]
M. M. D. Katunga, K. F. Balemirwe, F. Masheka, P. Zamukulu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106171
Abstract: Sud-Kivu province in DRC faces to malnutrition of his population. Agriculture and especially livestock have a low yield due to bad government, low diseases control, lack of feed, inappropriate chicken’s accommodation. Importation of food is very high. A survey was implemented on local chickens rearing in Bukavu town and his hinterland territories of Kabare, Walungu and Kalehe in Sud-Kivu. Conducted at the household level, standard methods of interviews and structured questionnaires were used on characterization chicken’s production systems and commercialization. Survey began on 2nd and finished on 22th April 2016. Results showed in terms of hatching, weaning, laying, health, accommodation, eggs production, weights and prices of eggs, hen and coq that local chickens still were mostly reared in traditional systems. Chicken’s products prices were high. To start a good program of chicken industry in this province and as well as in entire the country, selection of local chickens should before be carried out on characterization of production systems and genetic molecular analysis.
Geophysical Contribution for the Determination of Aquifer Properties in Memve Ele, South Cameroon  [PDF]
Harlin L. E. Nkoungou, Philippe N. Nouck, Dieudonné Bisso, Stéphane Assembe, Eliézer M. Dicoum
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410104
Abstract: This article aims to localise aquifer and to estimate hydraulic parameters such as transmissivity and tranverse resistance in the Memve Ele dam site (26.35 km2) in South-Cameroon region, using audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) method. For this purpose, resistivity data are collected at twenty-two measurement stations distributed along two perpendicular profiles in the study area. The sounding curves of phase and impedance are modelled and interpreted. The geological models and geoelectrical sections are also provided. The transverse resistivity and transmissivity field maps are plotted. The audiomagnetotellurics insights have been compared with boreholes. All these results allow us to localise the area which may be suitable to set up monitoring wells.
Deploying Safety-Critical Applications on Complex Avionics Hardware Architectures  [PDF]
Robert Hilbrich, Laurent Dieudonné
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.65028

Aviation electronics (avionics) are sophisticated and distributed systems aboard an airplane. The complexity of these systems is constantly growing as an increasing amount of functionalities is realized in software. Thanks to the performance increase, a hardware unit must no longer be dedicated to a single system function. Multicore processors for example facilitate this trend as they are offering an increased system performance in a small power envelope. In avionics, several system functions could now be integrated on a single hardware unit, if all safety requirements are still satisfied. This approach allows for further optimizations of the system architecture and substantial reductions of the space, weight and power (SWaP) footprint, and thus increases the transportation capacity. However, the complexity found in current safety-critical systems requires an automated software deployment process in order to tap this potential for further SWaP reductions. This article used a realistic flight control system as an example to present a new model-based methodology to automate the software deployment process. This methodology is based on the correctness-by-construction principle and is implemented as part of a systems engineering toolset. Furthermore, metrics and optimization criteria are presented which further help in the automatic assessment and refinement of a generated deployment. A discussion regarding a tighter integration of this approach in the entire avionics systems engineering workflow concludes this article.

Identification of Continuous Human B-Cell Epitopes in the VP35, VP40, Nucleoprotein and Glycoprotein of Ebola Virus
Pierre Becquart, Tanel Mahlak?iv, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Eric M. Leroy
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096360
Abstract: Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly virulent human pathogen. Recovery of infected patients is associated with efficient EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses, whereas fatal outcome is associated with defective humoral immunity. As B-cell epitopes on EBOV are poorly defined, we sought to identify specific epitopes in four EBOV proteins (Glycoprotein (GP), Nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix Viral Protein (VP)40 and VP35). For the first time, we tested EBOV IgG+ sera from asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic Gabonese survivors, collected during the early humoral response (seven days after the end of symptoms) and the late memory phase (7–12 years post-infection). We also tested sera from EBOV-seropositive patients who had never had clinical signs of hemorrhagic fever or who lived in non-epidemic areas (asymptomatic subjects). We found that serum from asymptomatic individuals was more strongly reactive to VP40 peptides than to GP, NP or VP35. Interestingly, anti-EBOV IgG from asymptomatic patients targeted three immunodominant regions of VP40 reported to play a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. In contrast, serum from most survivors of the three outbreaks, collected a few days after the end of symptoms, reacted mainly with GP peptides. However, in asymptomatic subjects the longest immunodominant domains were identified in GP, and analysis of the GP crystal structure revealed that these domains covered a larger surface area of the chalice bowl formed by three GP1 subunits. The B-cell epitopes we identified in the EBOV VP35, VP40, NP and GP proteins may represent important tools for understanding the humoral response to this virus and for developing new antibody-based therapeutics or detection methods.
Barthes, leitor de Malraux: uma oculta??o terrorista
Dieudonné, Julien;
Alea : Estudos Neolatinos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-106X2003000200005
Abstract: this article treats the current dislike in france for malraux, author of the novel man's fate, by discussing the almost complete absence of reference to his works by roland barthes. malraux is considered to have abandoned his leftist revolutionary stance after accepting political office next to minister de gaulle. barthes almost never mentions malraux or does it in order to discredit the writer and the minister he works for. this article tries, through fine irony, to offer an alternative to barthes' view and attempts to recover malraux's place in the panorama of french literature from the 1930's.
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