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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1279 matches for " Katsuo Sakai "
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Asymmetric Electrostatic Force  [PDF]
Katsuo Sakai
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2014.610026
Abstract: Asymmetric electrostatic forces are a very interesting and new phenomenon. The magnitude of an electrostatic force that acts on a point charge does not change when the direction of the electric field is reversed. On the contrary, the magnitude of the electrostatic force that acts on a charged asymmetric shaped conductor does change when the direction of the electric field is reversed. 5 years ago, this phenomenon was reported by a simple experiment and a simulation and named as an Asymmetric electrostatic force unofficially by the author. After that, several simulations confirmed this phenomenon. However, several experiments did not yet confirm it clearly. The difference between the simulations and the experiments depends upon differences of their conditions. The simulations had been done under ideal (perfect) conditions; the experiments, on the contrary, had been done under actual (not perfect) conditions. In the new experiment, its conditions were improved to near ideal (perfect) conditions. As a result the existence of the Asymmetric electrostatic force was more clearly confirmed.
Effects of Word Order Alternation on the Sentence Processing of Sinhalese Written and Spoken Forms  [PDF]
Katsuo Tamaoka, Prabath Buddhika Arachchige Kanduboda, Hiromu Sakai
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2011.12004
Abstract: In both written and spoken forms, the Sinhalese language allows all six possible word orders for active sentences with transitive verbs (i.e., SOV, OSV, SVO, OVS, VSO, and VOS), even though its unmarked order is subject-object-verb (SOV) (e.g., Gair, 1998; Miyagishi, 2003; Yamamoto, 2003). Reaction times for sentence correctness decisions showed SOV < SVO = OVS = OSV = VSO = VOS for the written form, and SOV < SVO = OVS < OSV = VSO = VOS for the spoken form. The different degrees of reaction times may correspond to the three different types of word order alternation. First, the fastest reaction time for SOV word order corresponds to the canonical order SOV without any structural change, represented as [ TP S [ VP O V] ] for both the written and spoken forms. Second, word order alternation at the same structural level is involved in both SVO and OVS, [ TP S [ VP t1 V O1] ] for SVO and [ TP t1 [ VP O V ] S1 ] for OVS, resulting in a slower reaction speed than SOV. Third, and again for only the spoken form, word order alternation takes place at a different structural level, [ TP’ O1 [ TP S [ VP t1 V ] ] ] for OSV, [ TP’ V1 [ TP S [ VP O t1] ] ] for VSO, and double word order alternations take place within the same level as [ TP t1 [ VP t2 V O2 ] S1] for VOS. These word order alternations for OSV, VSO and VOS require an extra cognitive load for sentence processing, even heavier than for a single word order alternation of SVO and OVS taking place at the same structural level. The present study thus provided evidence that the speed of sentence processing can be predicted from the cognitive load involved in word order alternation in a configurational phrase structure.
The (In)Sensitivity of Plural -S by Japanese Learners of English  [PDF]
Michael P. Mansbridge, Katsuo Tamaoka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2018.85017
Abstract: Because the Japanese language does not have a robust plural morpheme system, it is morphologically incongruent with English. As such, L1 Japanese learners of L2 English are argued to be unable to fully acquire English plural morphemes. While previous studies have revealed limitations in L2 processing, recent studies have revealed that advanced-learners are sensitive to incongruent morphology. However, these studies have largely investigated processing within English as a second language context. As such, the present study investigated the sensitivity to inflectional number agreement in English by Japanese learners of English in Japan using the Lexical Maze Task. The results revealed that these learners were sensitive to violations in number agreement for both plural (this *dogs) and null (these *cat) morphemes. However, further analysis revealed that this was modulated by English proficiency. While participants with higher English ability were found to reveal greater sensitivity to ungrammatical morphemes, it was found that this was only the case for the ungrammatical plural (this *dogs). The ungrammatical null (these *cat) was instead revealed to evoke longer responses times by low proficiency learners, and high proficiency learners showed no sensitivity. This might be explained by a greater lexical variability among more advanced learners. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that despite morphological incongruence, non-advanced Japanese learners of English in Japan can acquire the English plural -S morpheme.
Organizational Knowledge Creation Aspectof ETS-VIII Spacecraft Development
Katsuo Yonezawa
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2005,
Abstract: Organizational knowledge creation (OKC) is increasingly essential in technology development of large-scale systems on information, communication, computer, and cybernetics. It is because innovation always emerges where those disciplines meet interactively to form interdisciplinary area, embedding full of tacit knowledge. This fact motivates us to investigate how to maximize dynamics of knowledge creation in organizational members at daily tasks for innovation in science and technology. The case study of ETS-8 Spacecraft Development is given here to examine the aspect of OKC.
Priority Information Determining the Canonical Word Order of Written Sinhalese Sentences  [PDF]
Arachchige Buddhika Prabath Kanduboda, Katsuo Tamaoka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.21004
Abstract: The present study investigated the priority of information among case particles, thematic roles or grammatical functions in determining the canonical SOV word order of written Sinhalese. Four types of sentences were given to native Sinhalese speakers to perform sentence correctness decisions. The active sentences with transitive verbs in Experiment 1 and with ditransitive verbs in Experiment 2 revealed that canonical sentences (i.e., SOV or SOOV) were processed more quickly and accurately than the scrambled sentences (i.e., OSV or OSOV), which supported the existence of scrambling effects. However, since thematic roles, case particles and grammatical functions provide the same information for the SOV canonical order, two further experiments were conducted to single out the priority of information. In Experiment 3, native Sinhalese speakers processed passive sentences with canonical word order defined by case particles (i.e., SOV) more quickly and accurately than those defined by thematic roles (i.e., OSV). In Experiment 4, native speakers processed potential sentences defined by grammatical functions (i.e., SOV) more quickly and accurately than the information provided by case markers (i.e., OSV). Therefore, the present study concluded that grammatical functions play a crucial role to determine SOV canonical order.
To What Extent Does Accent Sensitivity Provide the Foundation for Lexical Knowledge and Listening Comprehension?  [PDF]
Arthur D. Meerman, Sachiko Kiyama, Katsuo Tamaoka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.43037

The present study investigated the extent to which accent sensitivity provides the foundation for lexical knowledge and listening comprehension for Japanese university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). On an English accent correctness (i.e., YES/NO response) decision task, 63 participants showed considerably high accuracy and speed in identifying correctly-accented nouns (82.14% and 1091 ms) and adverbs (86.67% and 959 ms). However, students were much less accurate in rejecting incorrectly-accented nouns (72.33% and 910 ms) and adverbs (67.67% and 933 ms). The results of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that accent sensitivity makes no contribution to either participants’ lexical knowledge or listening comprehension skills. In contrast, a strong direct effect was found from lexical knowledge to listening comprehension. As such, accent knowledge by Japanese EFL students is isolated from their lexical knowledge, with no contribution to their ability for listening comprehension.

Boundedness of several operators on weighted Herz spaces
Yasuo Komori,Katsuo Matsuoka
Journal of Function Spaces and Applications , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/739134
Abstract: We consider the boundedness of singular integral operators and fractional integral operators on weighted Herz spaces. For this purpose we introduce generalized Herz space. Our results are the best possible.
Bridging the Participation Gap with Government-sponsored Neighborhood Development Programs: Can Civic Skills Be Taught? El Uso de Programas de Desarrollo Social para Fomentar el Civismo
Katsuo A. Nishikawa
Journal of Politics in Latin America , 2012,
Abstract: I argue that innovative development programs that require citizen participation in the production of public goods can have unexpected bene-fits for individuals’ dispositions toward democracy. In particular, I explore the effect of taking part in state-sponsored neighborhood development programs – direct-democracy type programs that require individuals to organize within their community as a precondition for state help – on participant dispositions toward democracy and willingness to take part in politics. To test this hypothesis, I use original survey data collected in the Mexican state of Baja California. To measure the effect of participation in neighborhood development programs, I conduct a quasi experiment via propensity score matching. I find robust evidence suggesting that participating in such programs correlates with higher levels of political participation, a better sense of community, more positive retrospective evaluations of the economy (according to both pocketbook and sociotropic measures), and overall higher support for the government. En este estudio, propongo que programas innovadores de desarrollo social que requieren de la participación ciudadana para crear bienes públicos pueden, inesperadamente, fomentar actitudes favorables para la democracia. Específicamente, analizo como las disposiciones democráticas y el interés por participar en la vida política de sus comunidades cambia entre beneficiarios y no beneficiarios del programa. Dicho programa posee un estilo de democracia directa, en donde se requiere que los beneficiarios se organicen a nivel colonia como condición de implementación del programa. Para probar esta hipótesis, realicé una encuesta en el estado de Baja California, México. Para medir el efecto de participación en programas de desarrollo social, hice uso del método estadístico conocido en inglés como “propensity score matching” para llevar a cabo un cuasi experimento. Al final, encuentro que hay bastante evidencia de que el participar en este tipo de programas se correlaciona con mayores niveles de participación política, un sentir de mayor arraigo con la comunidad, una mayor evaluación retrospectiva de la economía, y un mayor apoyo hacia el gobierno.
Surface Properties of Cement Paste Evaluated by Scanning Probe Microscopy  [PDF]
Yuya Sakai
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2016.64052
Abstract: The microscopic physical properties of Hardened Cement Paste (HCP) surfaces were evaluated by using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM). The cement pastes were cured under a hydrostatic pressure of 400 MPa and the contacting surfaces with a slide glass during the curing were studied. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation at a magnification of 7000 revealed smooth surfaces with no holes. The surface roughness calculated from the SPM measurement was 4 nm. The surface potential and the frictional force measured by SPM were uniform throughout the measured area 24 h after the curing. However, spots of low surface potential and stains of low frictional force and low viscoelasticity were observed one month after curing. This change was attributed to the carbonation of hydrates.
A Study of Weighted Polynomial Approximations with Several Variables (II)  [PDF]
Ryozi Sakai
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.89093
Abstract: In this paper we investigate weighted polynomial approximations with several variables. Our study relates to the approximation for \"\" by weighted polynomial. Then we will give some results relating to the Lagrange interpolation, the best approximation, the Markov-Bernstein inequality and the Nikolskii- type inequality.
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