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X-Ray Observations on the Galactic Center Region
Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: This paper reports on the early Chandra view of the Galactic center (GC) activities. The massive black hole Sgr A* is extremely faint, while more bright diffuse X-ray emission is prevailing in the circumnuclear disk. Another high temperature plasma is found in the Sgr A East shell. This may indicate that Sgr A East is a supernova remnant, although no clear X-ray shell is found. A hint of non-thermal X-ray filaments is found, suggesting the presence of an acceleration site of extremely high-energy cosmic rays. The giant molecular cloud Sgr B2 is established to be an X-ray reflection nebula, possibly arising from the past Sgr A activities. Chandra further discovered high temperature shells, suggesting multiple supernova explosions near the GC region.
Chandra Observations of Embedded Young Stellar Objects
Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: This paper reviews the Chandra deep exposure observations of star forming regions, rho-Ophiuchi, Orion Molecular Clouds 2 and 3, Sagittarius B2 and Monoceros R2. The results are; (1) class I protostars are found to exhibit higher temperature plasma than those of T Tauri stars, (2) heavily absorbed X-rays are discovered from the candidates of class 0 protostars, (3) hard and highly variable X-rays are observed from high-mass young stars, and (4) young brown dwarfs emit X-rays similar to those of low-mass young stars.
X-Ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant W28 with Suzaku --- I. Spectral Study of the Recombining Plasma
Makoto Sawada,Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/64.4.81
Abstract: We present the Suzaku results of the mixed-morphology supernova remnant W28. The X-ray spectra of the central region of W28 exhibit many bright emission lines from highly ionized atoms. An optically thin thermal plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, either of single-temperature or multi-temperature failed to reproduce the data with line-like and bump-like residuals at the Si Lyman$\alpha$ energy and at 2.4--5.0 keV, respectively. The bumps probably correspond to radiative recombination continua from He-like Si and S. A simple recombining plasma model nicely fit the bump structures, but failed to fit low energy bands. The overall spectra can be fit with a multi-ionization temperature plasma with a common electron temperature. The multi-ionization temperatures are interpreted as elemental difference of ionization and recombination timescales. These results prefer the rarefaction scenario for the origin of the recombining plasma.
Broad-Band X-Ray Study of a Transient Pulsar RX J0059.2-7138
Makoto Kohno,Jun Yokogawa,Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/52.2.299
Abstract: We report on the results of the ASCA and ROSAT observations on RX J0059.2-7138, a transient X-ray pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The barycentric pulse period has been precisely determined to be 2.763221 +- 0.000004 s. The pulse shape is almost identical in all of the energy bands. The pulse fraction increases with the photon energy below ~2 keV, while it is nearly constant at ~37% above ~2 keV. The X-ray spectrum has been found to consist of two components. One is dominant above 2 keV, and exhibits sinusoidal pulsations. This component is well described by a typical model found in many X-ray binary pulsars, a power-law of photon index 0.4 with an exponential cut-off at 6.5 keV. The other is dominant below 1 keV and shows no significant pulsation. This component is represented by either a broken power-law with photon indices of 2.6 and 5.1 below and above a break energy of 0.9 keV, or a metal-poor thin-thermal plasma with a temperature of 0.37 keV. The phase-averaged luminosity is ~1E38 erg s^-1 (0.1-10.0 keV) for both components. A hint of oxygen over-abundance is found in the absorbing column, possibly due to circumstellar gas ejected from an evolved companion.
Errata: The X-Ray Emission Measure (EM) of the Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in the Rho Ophiuchi (Rho Oph) and Monoceros R2 Dark Clouds (Mon R2)
Kensuke Imanishi,Makoto Kohno,Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Errors were made in the calculations of EMs using the best fit normalizations in XSPEC. Lists of the errors and corrections are as follows. (1)Tables 1, 3, and 4 in ApJ, 557, 747 and astro-ph/0104190 (YSOs in Rho Oph): All the EMs in these tables should be multiplied by pi; the log(EM) in the first raw in Table 1, for example, is 52.6(52.2--53.2), not 52.1(51.7--52.7). (2)Figures 7 and 9 in ApJ, 557, 747 and astro-ph/0104190 (YSOs in Rho Oph): The EM plots should be systematically up-shifted by the factor of pi. (3)Table 3 in ApJ, 563, 361 and astro-ph/0108078 (young brown dwarfs in Rho Oph): All the EMs in this table should be multiplied by pi; the log(EM) in the first raw, for example, is 52.1(52.0--52.6), not 51.6(51.5--52.1). (4)Table 1 in ApJ, 567, 423 and astro-ph/0110462 (YSOs in Mon R2): All the EMs in this table should be divided by 10; the log(EM) in the first raw, for example, is 52.5(52.1--52.9), not 53.5(53.1--53.9). All the spectral parameters except EM are unchanged. These errors of EM do not affect any of the conclusions of the relevant papers. In addition, Gregorio-Hetem, J., Montmerle, T., Casanova, S., and Feigelson, E. D.1998, A&A, 331, 193 should be included in the reference list of ApJ, 567, 423 (astro-ph/0110462).
Asymmetric Ejecta Distribution in SN 1006
Hiroyuki Uchida,Hiroya Yamaguchi,Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/771/1/56
Abstract: We present the results from deep X-ray observations (~400 ks in total) of SN 1006 by the X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku. The thermal spectrum from the entire supernova remnant (SNR) exhibits prominent emission lines of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. The observed abundance pattern in the ejecta components is in good agreement with that predicted by a standard model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe). The spatially resolved analysis reveals that the distribution of the O-burning and incomplete Si-burning products (Si, S, and Ar) is asymmetric, while that of the C-burning products (O, Ne, and Mg) is relatively uniform in the SNR interior. The peak position of the former is clearly shifted by 5' (~3.2 pc at a distance of 2.2 kpc) to the southeast from the SNR's geometric center. Using the SNR age of ~1000 yr, we constrain the velocity asymmetry (in projection) of ejecta to be ~3100 km/s. The abundance of Fe is also significantly higher in the southeast region than in the northwest region. Given that the non-uniformity is observed only among the heavier elements (Si through Fe), we argue that SN 1006 originates from an asymmetric explosion, as is expected from recent multi-dimensional simulations of Type Ia SNe, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that an inhomogeneous ambient medium induced the apparent non-uniformity. Possible evidence for the Cr K-shell line and line broadening in the Fe K-shell emission is also found.
X-Ray Emission from the Galactic Supernova Remnant G12.0-0.1
Shigeo Yamauchi,Aya Bamba,Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/pst021
Abstract: We present results of the Suzaku/XIS observation around the radio supernova remnant (SNR) G12.0-0.1. No significant diffuse emission extending in or along the radio shell was observed. Instead two compact X-ray sources, Suzaku J181205-1835 and Suzaku J181210-1842, were found in or near G12.0-0.1. Suzaku J181205-1835 is located at the northwest of the radio shell of G12.0-0.1. The X-ray profile is slightly extended over the point spread function of the Suzaku telescope. The X-ray spectrum has no line-like structure and is well represented by a power-law model with a photon index of 2.2 and an absorption column of N_{H}=4.9x10^{22} cm^{-2}. The distances of Suzaku J181205-1835 and G12.0-0.1 are estimated from the absorption column and the Sigma-D relation, respectively, and are nearly the same with each other. These results suggest that Suzaku J181205-1835 is a candidate of a pulsar wind nebula associated with G12.0-0.1. From its location, Suzaku J181210-1842 would be unrelated object to G12.0-0.1. The X-ray profile is point-like and the spectrum is thin thermal emission with Fe K-lines at 6.4, 6.7, and 6.97 keV, similar to those of cataclysmic variables.
X-ray Detection from Bona-fide and Candidate Brown Dwarfs in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud with Chandra
Kensuke Imanishi,Masahiro Tsujimoto,Katsuji Koyama
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/342988
Abstract: We present results of an X-ray search from bona-fide and candidate brown dwarfs in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud cores with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The selected areas are two fields near the cloud center and are observed with the ACIS-I array of a 17'x17' size and a ~100 ks exposure. Among 18 bona-fide and candidate brown dwarfs listed by the infrared spectroscopy, we find X-ray emission from 7 sources above 99.9% confidence level. Therefore ~40% of the infrared-selected brown dwarfs in this cloud emit X-rays. For the brightest 4 sources, the X-ray spectra are made and are fitted with a thin-thermal plasma model of a temperature 1-2.5 keV. The X-rays are also time variable with rapid flares from 2 of the brown dwarfs. Assuming 2 keV temperature and using the empirical relation of Av vs. NH, we estimate the X-ray luminosity or its upper limit of the other faint or non-X-ray sources. The X-ray luminosity (Lx) of the X-ray-detected sources is in the range of 0.3-90x10^28 ergs s^-1, while the luminosity ratio of X-ray to bolometric (Lx/Lbol) is 10^-3 - 10^-5, similar to those of low-mass pre-main-sequence and dMe stars. All these results suggest that the X-ray origin of brown dwarfs is the same as low-mass stars; strong magnetic activity at the stellar surface.
Discovery of Non-Thermal X-Rays from the Shell of RCW86
Aya Bamba,Katsuji Koyama,Hiroshi Tomida
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/52.6.1157
Abstract: We report the ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) results of RCW 86, a shell-like supernova remnant (SNR). The bright region in the X-ray band traces the radio clumpy shell, although details of the structure are different. The X-ray spectrum from each part of the shell can not be fitted to a thin thermal plasma model, but requires, at least three components: a low temperature plasma of 0.3 keV, high temperature plasma of > several keV, and a power-law component with a photon index = 3. The abundances of O, Ne, Mg and Si are significantly higher than that of Fe, indicating that RCW 86 is a type II SNR. The absorption column of 3e21 H cm^-2 indicates the distance to the SNR to be several kpc. The power-law component can be interpreted to be synchrotron radiation of high energy electrons. Assuming energy density equipartition between the magnetic field and the electrons, and using the radio and X-ray spectra, we argue that high energy electrons are accelerated up to 20 TeV. The acceleration efficiency is, however, different from shell to shell.
Suzaku View of the Supernova Remnant RCW 86: X-Ray Studies of Newly-Discovered Fe-Rich Ejecta
Hiroya Yamaguchi,Katsuji Koyama,Hiroyuki Uchida
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We report on results of imaging and spectral analysis of the supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 86 observed with Suzaku. The SNR is known to exhibit K-shell emission of low ionized Fe, possibly originating from supernova ejecta. We revealed the global distribution of the Fe-rich plasma in the entire remnant, for the first time; the Fe-K emission was clearly detected from the west, north, and south regions, in addition to the X-ray brighter shells of southwest and northeast, where the presence of the Fe-rich ejecta has already been reported. The spectrum of each region is well represented by a three-component model consisting of low- and high-temperature thermal plasmas and a non-thermal emission. The lower-temperature component, with elemental abundances of near the solar values, likely originates from the forward shocked interstellar medium, while the Fe-rich ejecta is described by the hotter plasma. From the morphologies of the forward and reverse shocks in the west region, the total ejecta mass is estimated to be 1-2M_sun for the typical explosion energy of ~ 1 x 10^{51} erg. The integrated flux of the Fe-K emission from the entire SNR roughly corresponds to a total Fe mass of about 1M_sun. Both of these estimates suggest a Type Ia supernova origin of this SNR. We also find possible evidence of an Fe-rich clump located beyond the forward-shock front in the north rim, which is reminiscent of ejecta knots observed in the Tycho and Vela SNRs.
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