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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2479 matches for " Kato Mikio "
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Evaluation of intra- and interspecific divergence of satellite DNA sequences by nucleotide frequency calculation and pairwise sequence comparison
Kato Mikio
Biological Procedures Online , 2003, DOI: 10.1251/bpo47
Abstract: Satellite DNA sequences are known to be highly variable and to have been subjected to concerted evolution that homogenizes member sequences within species. We have analyzed the mode of evolution of satellite DNA sequences in four fishes from the genus Diplodus by calculating the nucleotide frequency of the sequence array and the phylogenetic distances between member sequences. Calculation of nucleotide frequency and pairwise sequence comparison enabled us to characterize the divergence among member sequences in this satellite DNA family. The results suggest that the evolutionary rate of satellite DNA in D. bellottii is about two-fold greater than the average of the other three fishes, and that the sequence homogenization event occurred in D. puntazzo more recently than in the others. The procedures described here are effective to characterize mode of evolution of satellite DNA.
Von Neumann–Jordan constant for Lebesgue–Bochner spaces
Kato Mikio,Takahashi Yasuji
Journal of Inequalities and Applications , 1998,
Abstract: The von Neumann–Jordan (NJ-) constant for Lebesgue–Bochner spaces is determined under some conditions on a Banach space . In particular the NJ-constant for as well as (the space of -Schatten class operators) is determined. For a general Banach space we estimate the NJ-constant of , which may be regarded as a sharpened result of a previous one concerning the uniform non-squareness for . Similar estimates are given for Banach sequence spaces ( -sum of Banach spaces ), which gives a condition by NJ-constants of 's under which is uniformly non-square. A bi-product concerning 'Clarkson's inequality' for and is also given.
Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Diagnosed as Coincidental Pulmonary Infection Due to Mycobacterium Species*  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kobashi, Keiji Mouri, Yasushi Obase, Shigeki Kato, Mikio Oka
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2013.32016
Abstract: Objectives: We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary mycobacterial disease diagnosed as coincidental pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium species. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty patients satisfied the diagnostic criteria of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease proposed by American Thoracic Society during the last seven years. Six patients (3.8%) were coincidental pulmonary infection due to two Mycobacterium species. We investigated the background, laboratory findings, microbiological findings, radiological findings, treatment and prognosis. Results: There were six patients, 3 males and 3 females, with a mean age of 71.7 years. The causative microorganisms of coincidental pulmonary infection consisted of Mycobacterium avium + Mycobacterium intracellulare in two patients, Mycobacterium avium + Mycobacterium kansasii in one, Mycobacterium intracellulare + Mycobacterium chelonae in one, Mycobacterium intracellulare + Mycobacterium abscessus in one, and Mycobacterium intracellulare + Mycobacterium tuberculosis in one. Regarding the radiological findings, the distribution of the lesion was frequently shown in both the right middle and left lingula lobes, but the extent of the lesion was limited within the unilateral lung field. Centrilobular small nodules with bronchiectasis were recognized in all patients and cavities or infiltration shadows were recognized in half of them on chest computed tomography. A definite diagnosis was obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in four patients and expectorated sputum in two. Combined chemotherapy was performed for two patients and that for pulmonary tuberculosis in one. Conclusions: Coincidental pulmonary infection due to Mycobactterium species occurred at a low percentage. Although most patients were elderly with underlying disease and clinical features were compatible with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease, the prognosis was comparatively good with and without treatment.
Clinical Application of T-SPOT.TB Using Pleural Effusion as a Diagnostic Method for Tuberculosis Infection  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kobashi, Keiji Mouri, Yasushi Obase, Shigeki Kato, Mikio Oka
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2014.42010
Abstract:
Introduction: The objective of this study was the comparison of the results of T-SPOT.TB using pleural effusion (PE) with those of IGRAs using peripheral blood (PB) or other diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) pleurisy. Methods: We measured adenosine deaminase (ADA) in PE, QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT), and T-SPOT.TB using PB, and T-SPOT.TB using PE. The definite group of TB pleurisy included 12 patients and other disease group 33 patients. Main find-ings: Sensitivity for QFT using PB was 83% and specificity was 85%, sensitivity for T-SPOT.TB using PB was 92% and specificity was 82%, while sensitivity for ADA in PE was 83% and specificity was 76%. When we adopted the same cut-off level of a positive response for T-SPOT.TB as PB using PE, sensitivity for T-SPOT.TB using PE was 100% and specificity was 82%, respectively. Although there were no significant differences among the four diagnostic methods, sensitivity for T-SPOT.TB using PE gave the most accurate diagnosis of TB-definite patients compared to ADA in PE or QFT using PB. Conclusions: If we performed T-SPOT.TB using a local specimen from the infection site, we could obtain a higher sensitivity than IGRAs using PB or ADA in PE and the numbers of ESAT-6 and CFP-10-positive SFCs were 3 to 5 fold higher in PEMCs than in PBMCs. T-SPOT.TB using PE may become a useful diagnostic method for TB pleurisy.
Clinical Evaluation of New Biomarkers including IFN-γ for the Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis Disease  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kobashi, Keiji Mouri, Shigeki Kato, Mikio Oka
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2015.34020
Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical potential of new biomarkers such as IL-2, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1β including IFN-γ for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Materials and Methods: The subjects consisted of 31 patients with active TB disease and 62 patients with non-TB disease. We measured IFN-γ using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube, and IL-2, TNF-α, MCP-1, and MIP-1β using the supernatant from whole blood stimulated with MTB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)-specific antigens. Results: In the patient group with active TB disease, while the positive response rate of IFN-γ was 74%, that of IL-2 using the supernatant was 61%, TNF-α was 71%, MCP-1 was 81% and MIP-1β was 81%. In the patient group with non-TB disease, while the positive response rate of IFN-γ was 11%, that of IL-2using the supernatant was 32%, TNF-α was 26%, MCP-1 was 23% and MIP-1β was 19%. All biomarker levels of the patients with active TB disease using the supernatant were significantly higher than those of the patients with non-TB disease. While MIP-1β was the most sensitive of all the biomarkers (sensitivity: 80.6%), IFN-γ was the best in terms of specificity (specificity: 87.0%). Conclusions: Several biomarkers, apart from IL-2, showed similar results compared to IFN-γ. The combination of IFN-γ and other new biomarkers may increase the diagnostic accuracy of active TB.
Strict convexity of absolute norms on and direct sums of banach spaces
Takahashi Yasuji,Kato Mikio,Saito Kichi-Suke
Journal of Inequalities and Applications , 2002,
Abstract: We show that an absolute normalized norm on is strictly convex if and only if the corresponding convex function on is strictly convex. In this context the monotonicity property of these norms is discussed. We also introduce the notion of the direct sum of Banach spaces and equipped with the associated norm with and characterize the strict convexity of .
The Neural Correlates of Mindful Awareness: A Possible Buffering Effect on Anxiety-Related Reduction in Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity
Yuko Hakamata, Mikio Iwase, Takashi Kato, Kohei Senda, Toshiya Inada
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075526
Abstract: Background Human personality consists of two fundamental elements character and temperament. Character allays automatic and preconceptual emotional responses determined by temperament. However, the neurobiological basis of character and its interplay with temperament remain elusive. Here, we examined character-temperament interplay and explored the neural basis of character, with a particular focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex extending to a ventromedial portion of the prefrontal cortex (sgACC/vmPFC). Methods Resting brain glucose metabolism (GM) was measured using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in 140 healthy adults. Personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Regions of interest (ROI) analysis and whole-brain analysis were performed to examine a combination effect of temperament and character on the sgACC/vmPFC and to explore the neural correlates of character, respectively. Results Harm avoidance (HA), a temperament trait (i.e., depressive, anxious, vulnerable), showed a significant negative impact on the sgACC/vmPFC GM, whereas self-transcendence (ST), a character trait (i.e., intuitive, judicious, spiritual), exhibited a significant positive effect on GM in the same region (HA β = ?0.248, p = 0.003; ST: β = 0.250, p = 0.003). In addition, when coupled with strong ST, individuals with strong HA maintained the sgACC/vmPFC GM level comparable to the level of those with low scores on both HA and ST. Furthermore, exploratory whole-brain analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between ST and sgACC/vmPFC GM (peak voxel at x = ?8, y = 32, z = ?8, k = 423, Z = 4.41, corrected pFDR = 0.030). Conclusion The current findings indicate that the sgACC/vmPFC might play a critical role in mindful awareness to something beyond as well as in emotional regulation. Developing a sense of mindfulness may temper exaggerated emotional responses in individuals with a risk for or having anxiety and depressive disorders.
Pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii Disease in Previously Healthy Women  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kobashi, Masaaki Abe, Keiji Mouri, Shigeki Kato, Mikio Oka
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44017
Abstract: We encountered two cases of pulmonary M. kansasii disease in two women without underlying diseases in our hospital. Case 1 was a 52-year-old woman who visited with an abnormal chest shadow. She showed nodular and linear shadows with bronchiectatic changes and small cavities in the left upper lobe and lingula, and was diagnosed with pulmonary M. kansasii disease because M. kansasii was isolated from her bronchoscopic specimens. Case 2 was a 33-year-old woman who visited with a productive cough. She showed several cavity lesions in the right lung, and was diagnosed with pulmonary M. kansasii disease from several isolated sputum samples. Combination therapy using INH, RFP, and EB was effective treatment for the two cases. Because pulmonary M. kansasii disease in previously healthy women shows various radiological patterns, it was considered important to perform acid-fast bacilli examination using clinical specimens in order to decide on the appropriate treatment methods.
Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Complicated by Lung Cancer during the Follow-Up Periods  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kobashi, Makoto Kittaka, Keiji Mouri, Shigeki Kato, Mikio Oka
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2016.64009
Abstract: Introduction: The objective of this study was the estimation of the clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease complicated by lung cancer during the follow-up periods. Methods: We analyzed the clinical findings of four patients (2.0%) complicated by lung cancer during the follow-up periods of over six months at least after the definite diagnosis of pulmonary NTM disease of 202 patients with pulmonary NTM disease experienced in our hospital in the last decade. Results: There were four patients with pulmonary NTM disease complicated by lung cancer and all of them were caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). They were all elderly male patients and had underlying diseases. Three patients were diagnosed with primary lung cancer and one diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer from colon cancer within 3 years after the diagnosis of pulmonary NTM disease. The treatments for lung cancer were surgical resection for all patients with localized lesions. One patient died due to the worsening of underlying disease and the remaining three survived except for the recurrence of one patient. Conclusion: Although the complication rate of pulmonary NTM disease and lung cancer was a lower percentage (2.0%) than in previous reports, the careful follow-up for patients with pulmonary NTM disease without forgetting the possible complication of lung cancer is necessary.
Nitrogen Discharged from the Earth’s Interior Regions  [PDF]
Mikio Fukuhara
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.52012
Abstract:

The abundant nitrogen in the Earth’s atmosphere can be interpreted as the result of endothermic nuclear transmutation of carbon and oxygen atom pairs in (Ca, D) CO3 or CaCO3 aragonite lattice of Earth’s crust from the Archean era to the present time, by physical catalytic help of excited electrons e* generated by stick sliding due to plate tectonics and geoneutrinos ν by the radioactive decay of elements such as uranium and thorium in Earth’s mantle: \"\" through a nuclear attraction effect that is due to deuteron catalysis of nitrogen formation. The relationship between the critical temperature T and the critical pressure P for the nuclear transmutation is expressed as 7253 × e-0.014P, and the formation of nitrogen in the mantle is possible at temperatures ≥ 2510 K and pressure ≥ 58 GPa.

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