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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 671 matches for " Kathrin Kuhnert "
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Bosphorus Double standards in European human rights protection?
Kathrin Kuhnert
Utrecht Law Review , 2006,
Abstract: This paper describes the main facts and findings of the Bosphorus judgment and analyses its legal assessment of the controversial question of the European Court of Human Rights’ (ECtHR) jurisdiction to review EC law. A historic review of ECtHR case-law shows that – despite a rather inconsistent approach – Community acts have become subject to expanding judicial scrutiny by the Strasbourg Court. EU Member States can now be held responsible for (nearly) all Community acts by the mere fact that they have implemented them. This creates a dilemma, as EU Member States have to comply with different obligations flowing from the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) and from Community law. Moreover, the question is highlighted whether, with this judgment, the ECtHR has acknowledged a double standard in human rights protection between EU Member States and non-EU Member States of the Council of Europe. It is argued in this contribution that after the geographic enlargement of Europe, the boundaries of human rights jurisdiction must also expand legally, providing the EU with consistency in its external human rights policy. Therefore, the accession of the EC and the EU to the ECHR seems inevitable.
The ST7 Interferometer
Robert Spero,Andreas Kuhnert
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/21/5/030
Abstract: Two homodyne Michelson interferferometers aboard the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will measure the the positions of two free-floating test masses, as part of the NASA ST7 mission. The interferometer is required to measure the separation between the test masses with sensitivity of 30 pm/sqrt(Hz) at 10 mHz. The readout scheme is described, error sources are analyzed, and experimental results are presented.
A Survey of Control Structures for Reconfigurable Petri Nets  [PDF]
Julia Padberg, Kathrin Hoffmann
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.32002
Abstract: Software systems are increasingly executed in dynamic infrastructures. These infrastructures are dynamic as they are themselves subject to change as they support various applications that may or may not share some of the resources. Dynamic software systems become more and more important, but are difficult to handle. Modeling and simulating dynamic systems requires the representation of their processes and the system changes within one model. To that effect, reconfigurable Petri nets consist of a Petri net and a set of rules that can modify the Petri net. Their main feature is the capability to model complex coordination behavior in dynamically adapting infrastructures. The interplay of both levels of dynamic behavior requires a very precise description, so the specification when and which rules are to be applied plays a crucial role for the convenient use of reconfigurable nets. We differentiate several types of reconfigurable Petri nets and present a survey of control structure for these types, reconfigurable Petri nets. These control structures either concern the infrastructure, i.e., the rules and transformations or the system part, i.e., the firing behavior, or both. They are introduced by a short characterization and illustrated by examples. We state the results for various Petri net types and the tools supporting the different control structures.
Dll4-Notch signaling as a therapeutic target in tumor angiogenesis
Frank Kuhnert, Jessica R Kirshner, Gavin Thurston
Vascular Cell , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2045-824x-3-20
Abstract: The concept that solid tumors require the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) for oxygen and nutrient supply, first proposed by Folkman 40 years ago [1], is now solidly accepted and has spurred substantial efforts to develop anticancer therapeutics that interfere with tumor angiogenesis. Many of the angiogenic signaling pathways necessary for embryonic development are reactivated during tumor angiogenesis, and as such represent targets for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy. VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a primary endothelial cell growth factor, and blockade of the VEGF signaling pathway is now a clinically approved and widely used therapy for cancer. However, inherent or acquired resistance to anti-VEGF therapy is frequently observed in tumors, thus illustrating the need for targeting additional angiogenesis pathways to fully exploit the promise of anti-angiogenic cancer therapy. Notch signaling has recently emerged as a critical regulator of developmental and tumor angiogenesis. Notch signaling in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells appears to provide critical regulatory information to these cells downstream of the initiating signal induced by VEGF. In particular, the Notch ligand Dll4 (delta-like 4) has been identified as a promising new target in tumor angiogenesis in preclinical studies. Pharmacological Dll4 inhibitors have been developed and are entering clinical trials for solid tumors. This review aims to provide current perspectives on the function of Dll4-Notch signaling axis during tumor angiogenesis and on mechanisms and applications of targeting this pathway for cancer therapy.The Notch pathway is an evolutionary conserved signaling system that regulates cell fate specification, tissue patterning and morphogenesis by modulating cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and survival [2-4]. In mammals, the core components of the pathway include five canonical DSL (Delta, Serrate, Lag2) ligands (called Dll1, 3, 4, and Jagged1 an
Solving the Canonical Representation and Star System Problems for Proper Circular-Arc Graphs in Log-Space
Johannes K?bler,Sebastian Kuhnert,Oleg Verbitsky
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We present a logspace algorithm that constructs a canonical intersection model for a given proper circular-arc graph, where `canonical' means that models of isomorphic graphs are equal. This implies that the recognition and the isomorphism problems for this class of graphs are solvable in logspace. For a broader class of concave-round graphs, that still possess (not necessarily proper) circular-arc models, we show that those can also be constructed canonically in logspace. As a building block for these results, we show how to compute canonical models of circular-arc hypergraphs in logspace, which are also known as matrices with the circular-ones property. Finally, we consider the search version of the Star System Problem that consists in reconstructing a graph from its closed neighborhood hypergraph. We solve it in logspace for the classes of proper circular-arc, concave-round, and co-convex graphs.
Circular-arc hypergraphs: Rigidity via Connectedness
Johannes K?bler,Sebastian Kuhnert,Oleg Verbitsky
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: A circular-arc hypergraph $H$ is a hypergraph admitting an arc ordering, that is, a circular ordering of the vertex set $V(H)$ such that every hyperedge is an arc of consecutive vertices. An arc ordering is tight if, for any two hyperedges $A$ and $B$ such that $A$ is a nonempty subset of $B$ and $B$ is not equal to $V(H)$, the corresponding arcs share a common endpoint. We give sufficient conditions for $H$ to have, up to reversing, a unique arc ordering and a unique tight arc ordering. These conditions are stated in terms of connectedness properties of $H$. It is known that $G$ is a proper circular-arc graph exactly when its closed neighborhood hypergraph $N[G]$ admits a tight arc ordering. We explore connectedness properties of $N[G]$ and prove that, if $G$ is a connected, twin-free, proper circular-arc graph with non-bipartite complement, then $N[G]$ has, up to reversing, a unique arc ordering. If the complement of $G$ is bipartite and connected, then $N[G]$ has, up to reversing, two tight arc orderings. As a corollary, we notice that in both of the two cases $G$ has an essentially unique intersection representation. The last result also follows from the work by Deng, Hell, and Huang based on a theory of local tournaments.
On the Isomorphism Problem for Helly Circular-Arc Graphs
Johannes K?bler,Sebastian Kuhnert,Oleg Verbitsky
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The isomorphism problem is known to be efficiently solvable for interval graphs, while for the larger class of circular-arc graphs its complexity status stays open. We consider the intermediate class of intersection graphs for families of circular arcs that satisfy the Helly property. We solve the isomorphism problem for this class in logarithmic space. If an input graph has a Helly circular-arc model, our algorithm constructs it canonically, which means that the models constructed for isomorphic graphs are equal.
Modifications of histone cores and tails in V(D)J recombination
Kathrin Muegge
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2003-4-4-211
Abstract: The organization of DNA into chromatin allows dense packaging of the genetic material and protects it against damage. Chromatin packaging also allows functional organization of the genome into active regions of 'open' euchromatin, which are accessible to regulatory factors, and silent regions of condensed heterochromatin [1,2]. The reversible switch from euchromatin to heterochromatin provides a means of controlling processes occurring on the DNA, such as replication and transcription, and has been proposed - in the so-called 'accessibility hypothesis' - to be crucial for regulating V(D)J recombination during immune-system development [3].During V(D)J recombination, gene segments that encode variable receptors within the immune system are recombined and newly assembled to allow expression of distinct immunoglobulins or T-cell receptors (TCRs) [4,5]. The V(D)J recombinase, a dimer of the site-specific recombination proteins RAG1 and RAG2, binds to recombination signal sequences that flank the V, D and J gene segments and initiates the process of cleaving the DNA sequences that are to be rearranged. Because the same recombinase is present in both T and B cells, but only B cells fully rearrange their immunoglobulin loci and only T cells their TCR loci, it has been proposed that a specific modulation of chromatin structure might open up recombination signal sequences to provide access for the recombinase. This 'chromatin accessibility' model could explain lineage and allele specificity of recombination as well as the temporal order of V(D)J rearrangement during development. A recent study from the Struhl and Oettinger laboratories [6] has provided new evidence in support of this model.The accessibility model gained support from the observation of close association between the processes of transcription and recombination of unrearranged V, D and J fragments. Deletion of cis-acting enhancer or promoter sequences frequently inhibited both processes [5,7], and it was propos
Zur brasilianischen Textart "Memorial Acadêmico": wie man sich in Brasilien auf eine akademische Stelle bewirbt
Schweiger, Kathrin;
Pandaemonium Germanicum , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-88372009000100006
Abstract: this paper analyses the brazilian genre "memorial acadêmico" and its function, outlining similarities and differences in comparison with the german genre "akademischer lebenslauf. based on a corpus of seven "memoriais", differences in terms of proposition and illocution between these two genres were identified.
Communication and Language in Niklas Luhmann's Systems-Theory
Maurer, Kathrin;
Pandaemonium Germanicum , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-88372010000200002
Abstract: this article investigates the function and reality of language in niklas luhmann's systems theory. how can one interpret the systems-theoretical assumption that language is based on communication? luhmann describes language as a dynamic media/form relationship, which is able to couple the social and psychological system. this structural coupling, which constructs consciousness and language as two autonomous systems, raises problems if one defines language from a cognitive point of view. this article discusses these problems and aims to develop assumptions and questions within the systems-theoretical approach.
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