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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402315 matches for " Kathleen M. Naughton "
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Mutations that permit residual CFTR function delay acquisition of multiple respiratory pathogens in CF patients
Deanna M Green, Kathryn E McDougal, Scott M Blackman, Patrick R Sosnay, Lindsay B Henderson, Kathleen M Naughton, J Michael Collaco, Garry R Cutting
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-140
Abstract: Lung infection, defined as a single positive respiratory tract culture, was assessed for 13 organisms in 1,381 individuals with CF. Subjects were divided by predicted CFTR function: 'Residual': carrying at least one partial function CFTR mutation (class IV or V) and 'Minimal' those who do not carry a partial function mutation. Kaplan-Meier estimates were created to assess CFTR effect on age of acquisition for each organism. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to control for possible cofactors. A separate Cox regression was used to determine whether defining infection with Pa, mucoid Pa or Aspergillus (Asp) using alternative criteria affected the results. The influence of severity of lung disease at the time of acquisition was evaluated using stratified Cox regression methods by lung disease categories.Subjects with 'Minimal' CFTR function had a higher hazard than patients with 'Residual' function for acquisition of 9 of 13 organisms studied (HR ranging from 1.7 to 3.78 based on the organism studied). Subjects with minimal CFTR function acquired infection at a younger age than those with residual function for 12 of 13 organisms (p-values ranging: < 0.001 to 0.017). Minimal CFTR function also associated with younger age of infection when 3 alternative definitions of infection with Pa, mucoid Pa or Asp were employed. Risk of infection is correlated with CFTR function for 8 of 9 organisms in patients with good lung function (>90%ile) but only 1 of 9 organisms in those with poorer lung function (<50%ile).Residual CFTR function correlates with later onset of respiratory tract infection by a wide spectrum of organisms frequently cultured from CF patients. The protective effect conferred by residual CFTR function is diminished in CF patients with more advanced lung disease.Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive life-shortening disorder in the Caucasian population and progressive obstructive lung disease is the primary cause of mortality[1,2].
Effect of Temperature on Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease and Infections: A Replicated Cohort Study
Joseph M. Collaco, John McGready, Deanna M. Green, Kathleen M. Naughton, Christopher P. Watson, Timothy Shields, Scott C. Bell, Claire E. Wainwright, for the ACFBAL Study Group, Garry R. Cutting 3
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027784
Abstract: Background Progressive lung disease accounts for the majority of morbidity and mortality observed in cystic fibrosis (CF). Beyond secondhand smoke exposure and socio-economic status, the effect of specific environmental factors on CF lung function is largely unknown. Methods Multivariate regression was used to assess correlation between specific environmental factors, the presence of pulmonary pathogens, and variation in lung function using subjects enrolled in the U.S. CF Twin and Sibling Study (CFTSS: n = 1378). Significant associations were tested for replication in the U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFF: n = 16439), the Australian CF Data Registry (ACFDR: n = 1801), and prospectively ascertained subjects from Australia/New Zealand (ACFBAL: n = 167). Results In CFTSS subjects, the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 1.06 per °F; p<0.001) was associated with warmer annual ambient temperatures. This finding was independently replicated in the CFF (1.02; p<0.001), ACFDR (1.05; p = 0.002), and ACFBAL (1.09; p = 0.003) subjects. Warmer temperatures (?0.34 points per °F; p = 0.005) and public insurance (?6.43 points; p<0.001) were associated with lower lung function in the CFTSS subjects. These findings were replicated in the CFF subjects (temperature: ?0.31; p<0.001; insurance: ?9.11; p<0.001) and similar in the ACFDR subjects (temperature: ?0.23; p = 0.057). The association between temperature and lung function was minimally influenced by P. aeruginosa. Similarly, the association between temperature and P. aeruginosa was largely independent of lung function. Conclusions Ambient temperature is associated with prevalence of P. aeruginosa and lung function in four independent samples of CF patients from two continents.
Variation in MSRA Modifies Risk of Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis
Lindsay B. Henderson,Vishal K. Doshi,Scott M. Blackman,Kathleen M. Naughton,Rhonda G. Pace,Jackob Moskovitz,Michael R. Knowles,Peter R. Durie,Mitchell L. Drumm,Garry R. Cutting
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002580
Abstract: Meconium ileus (MI), a life-threatening intestinal obstruction due to meconium with abnormal protein content, occurs in approximately 15 percent of neonates with cystic fibrosis (CF). Analysis of twins with CF demonstrates that MI is a highly heritable trait, indicating that genetic modifiers are largely responsible for this complication. Here, we performed regional family-based association analysis of a locus that had previously been linked to MI and found that SNP haplotypes 5′ to and within the MSRA gene were associated with MI (P = 1.99×10?5 to 1.08×10?6; Bonferroni P = 0.057 to 3.1×10?3). The haplotype with the lowest P value showed association with MI in an independent sample of 1,335 unrelated CF patients (OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.53–0.98], P = 0.04). Intestinal obstruction at the time of weaning was decreased in CF mice with Msra null alleles compared to those with wild-type Msra resulting in significant improvement in survival (P = 1.2×10?4). Similar levels of goblet cell hyperplasia were observed in the ilea of the Cftr?/? and Cftr?/?Msra?/? mice. Modulation of MSRA, an antioxidant shown to preserve the activity of enzymes, may influence proteolysis in the developing intestine of the CF fetus, thereby altering the incidence of obstruction in the newborn period. Identification of MSRA as a modifier of MI provides new insight into the biologic mechanism of neonatal intestinal obstruction caused by loss of CFTR function.
The Effect of Work-Based Placement on the Final Year Attainment of Students Reading for a Broad BSc Hons Degree Programme in Biosciences in Northern Ireland—Case Report  [PDF]
Violetta Naughton, Patrick J. Naughton
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.41022
Abstract: This case report presents an evaluation of the effect of a work-based placement on the achievements in the final year of the undergraduate degree. We also aimed to assess whether “better” students were opting to take up a placement year and if such a con-founder would have an influence on the effect of placement on final year performance. Retrospective data were collected for ten consecutive cohorts of students who had read for the same full time BSc Hons degree programme with a broad curriculum that offered an optional work-based placement year that was not closely aligned to their academic studies. The results have shown that “better” students opt to take up an optional work-based placement year; however, taking up the placement has not affected students’ final year attainment. This case report supports the notion that for a work-based placement to have a positive effect on students’ final year attainment, the placement must be closely aligned to the discipline of academic study.
The Integration of Subject Specific Skills and Small Group Teaching into Year 1 of Degree Programmes: A Study Skills Programme, a School-Wide Learning and Teaching Initiative  [PDF]
Violetta Naughton, Patrick J. Naughton
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.57019
Abstract: This paper presents and discusses a student-focussed, small group learning and teaching, and school-wide initiative designed for first year undergraduate students in support of their transition into higher education. The details of the underlying pedagogic strategy, as well as the organisation (small group teaching environment), the content of applied learning and teaching approaches (including assignment and assessment), and the outcomes of the initiative evaluation (including required human resources) based on data collected from five consecutive academic years are presented. This paper aims to serve as an example of a pedagogic approach that facilitates student transition into Higher Education aimed at practitioners, especially those involved in delivery and/or those who are engaged or responsible for undergraduate curricula development. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for curricular changes to support students’ engagement at this early stage of their university career.
Impacts of waveforms on the fluid flow, wall shear stress, and flow distribution in cerebral aneurysms and the development of a universal reduced pressure  [PDF]
Noel M. Naughton, Brian D. Plourde, John R. Stark, Simona Hodis, John P. Abraham
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.71002
Abstract:

The hydrodynamics of aneurysm blood flow is thought to be a critical factor in the evolution and potential rupture of blood vessel walls. The ability to predict which aneurysms may grow or rupture has eluded researchers and practicing clinicians. On the other hand, it is expected that local flow patterns, pressures, and wall shear stress play a role in the aneurysm life. In this study, the impact of waveform on these parameters was studied. A baseline waveform, taken from a patient, was applied to an aneurysm geometry. Then the waveform was modified by increasing and decreasing both the flowrates and the cardiac rate. In total, seven cases were investigated. It was found that there were remarkable similarities in the patterns of flow and wall stresses for the cases. These similarities existed throughout the cardiac cycle. It was also found that there was a reduced pressure variable that provides a universal relationship that characterizes all of the cases. It was seen that the maximum wall shear occurs at the neck of the aneurysm and scales with the peak systolic velocity. Finally, it is shown that the flow distribution to the multiple outlets does not appreciably depend on the details of the inlet waveform. All cases had a flow distribution that was within 2%.

Interference Commensurate Oscillations in Q1D Conductors
A. G. Lebed,M. J. Naughton
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.187003
Abstract: We suggest an analytical theory to describe angular magnetic oscillations recently discovered in quasi-one-dimensional conductor (TMTSF)2PF6 [see Phys. Rev. B, 57, 7423 (1998)] and define the positions of the oscillation minima. The origin of these oscillations is related to interference effects resulting from an interplay of quasi-periodic and periodic ("commensurate") electron trajectories in an inclined magnetic field. We reproduce via calculations existing experimental data and predict some novel effects.
Magnetic Determination of $H_{c2}$ under Accurate Alignment in (TMTSF)$_2$ClO$_4$
J. I. Oh,M. J. Naughton
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067001
Abstract: Cantilever magnetometry has been used to measure the upper critical magnetic field $H_{c2}$ of the quasi-one dimensional molecular organic superconductor (TMTSF)$_2$ClO$_4$. From simultaneous resistivity and torque magnetization experiments conducted under precise field alignment, $H_{c2}$ at low temperature is shown to reach 5T, nearly twice the Pauli paramagnetic limit imposed on spin singlet superconductors. These results constitute the first thermodynamic evidence for a large $H_{c2}$ in this system and provide support for spin triplet pairing in this unconventional superconductor
A Concept Analysis of Mentoring in Nursing Leadership  [PDF]
Alexis Kathleen Hodgson, Judith M. Scanlan
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.35052
Abstract:

Attention in the literature has been given to the critical state of nursing leadership development. There is a need to identify effective ways to sustain and develop nursing leaders. Mentoring has been identified as an invaluable tool to attract and retain new nurse leaders. Examining the concept of mentoring in nursing leadership provides a greater understanding of its importance in today’s healthcare system. The concept of mentoring will be analyzed using the framework developed by Walker and Avant. A literature review was conducted to examine the current usage of the concept of mentoring. Consistent with Walker and Avant’s framework, defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of mentoring have been identified. Further illustration of this concept is provided by describing model, borderline, related, and contrary cases. Demonstrating the occurrence of the concept of mentoring, Empirical referents will also be explored.

Compilation and Analysis of Atherosclerosis Gene Expression Data  [PDF]
Michelle L. Booze, Kathleen M. Eyster
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2015.52011
Abstract: The objective of this project was to search for consensus in differential gene expression data and in regulation of differentially expressed genes among DNA microarray studies of atherosclerotic vessels and plaque. Seventeen DNA microarray studies of atherosclerosis were analyzed. Only 19 genes were found to be differentially expressed in 3 or more of the studies. The nineteen genes belong to classic gene ontologies known to be involved in atherosclerosis: immunity and defense, metabolism, proteases, receptors, and signal transduction. Four bioinformatics programs (TRED, rVISTA, JASPAR, and Ariadne Pathways) were used to further analyze the promoter regions and common upstream regulators of the 19 genes. Twelve of the genes shared nine common upstream regulators, many of them known to affect atherosclerosis, and one possible new pathway was identified that may be involved in this disease.
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