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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 300110 matches for " Kathleen J. Green "
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Weight Loss Impact on Change in Depression in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Study to Help Improve Early Evaluation and Management of Risk Factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD)  [PDF]
Susan Grandy, Andrew J. Green, Kathleen M. Fox
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.43031
Abstract:

Objectives: This study evaluated the association between weight loss and change in depression among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Weight change from 2008 to 2009 among respondents (with and without T2DM) in the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD) was calculated. Change in depression was calculated as change from 2008 to 2009 in Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores. Respondents with weight loss (>1%, >3%, >5%) were compared with respondents with weight gain (≥1%). Multivariate regression adjusted for baseline characteristics. Results: Among those with T2DM, more respondents with weight loss (n = 779) improved their depression scores, compared with respondents with weight gain (n = 731): 32.9%, 36.9%, 39.8% for >1%, >3%, and >5% weight loss, respectively, vs. 28.7% for weight gain (p<0.05). More respondents with weight loss improved the severity level of depression compared with respondents with weight gain (p < 0.05). After adjustment, T2DM respondents with weight loss had significantly greater improvement in depression scores (p < 0.05) and had 2 - 3 times higher odds of improving depression severity than T2DM respondents with weight gain (OR: 2.22 for >1%, 2.96 for >3%, and 3.31 for >5% weight loss, p < 0.01). Similar improvement in depression scores and severity of depression related to weight loss was observed among all SHIELD respondents (with and without T2DM). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate an association between weight loss and improvement in depression over a 1-year period in adults with T2DM, and suggest the need for further investigation with respect to causality.

Effect of Human Insulin on the Formation of Catheter-Associated E. coli Biofilms  [PDF]
Balbina J. Plotkin, Zijian Wu, Kathleen Ward, Shaven Nadella, Jacalyn M. Green, Benny Rumnani
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2014.45009
Abstract:

Biofilm formation is essential for the survival and growth of Escherichia coli in catheter-associated infections. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus can excrete insulin and/or glucose in their urine. This population also has an increased incidence of urinary tract infections. The focus of this study was to determine if the composition of Foley catheter material affects biofilm formation by E. coli in a model system for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rubber (lubricious-coated), silicon-coated, silver-coated and nitrofurazone-coated catheter segments (5 mm; n = 6) were tested. Catheter segments were added to E. coli ATCC25922 (104 CFU/ml, final concentration) in artificial urine alone, or with insulin (40 μU/ml) and/or glucose (0.1%). After incubation (18 h, 37?C, in air and anaerobically) the level of catheter-associated biofilm was determined by crystal violet staining (Abs550nm). Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA with post-hoc analysis (Tukey). Neither nitrofurazone-coated nor silver-coated catheters supported the formation of E. coli

Impact of Regular Exercise and Attempted Weight Loss on Quality of Life among Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Andrew J. Green,Kathleen M. Fox,Susan Grandy
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/172073
Abstract: Objective. To examine the association between exercising regularly and trying to lose weight, and quality of life among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey reported whether they had tried to lose weight during the previous 12 months and whether they exercised regularly for >6 months. Respondents completed the SF-12 quality-of-life survey one year later. Differences between T2DM respondents (=2419) and respondents with no diabetes (=6750) were tested using t-tests and linear regression models adjusting for demographics, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes status. Results. After adjustment, exercising regularly was significantly associated with higher subsequent physical and mental component scores (<.001). After adjustment, trying to lose weight was not associated with higher physical component scores (=.87), but was associated with higher mental component scores (=.01). Conclusion. Respondents who reported exercising regularly had significantly better physical and mental quality of life, compared with respondents who did not exercise regularly. Despite exercising regularly, respondents with T2DM had significantly worse quality of life, compared with respondents without diabetes who exercised regularly.
Impact of Regular Exercise and Attempted Weight Loss on Quality of Life among Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Andrew J. Green,Kathleen M. Fox,Susan Grandy
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/172073
Abstract: Objective. To examine the association between exercising regularly and trying to lose weight, and quality of life among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey reported whether they had tried to lose weight during the previous 12 months and whether they exercised regularly for >6 months. Respondents completed the SF-12 quality-of-life survey one year later. Differences between T2DM respondents ( ) and respondents with no diabetes ( ) were tested using t-tests and linear regression models adjusting for demographics, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes status. Results. After adjustment, exercising regularly was significantly associated with higher subsequent physical and mental component scores ( ). After adjustment, trying to lose weight was not associated with higher physical component scores ( ), but was associated with higher mental component scores ( ). Conclusion. Respondents who reported exercising regularly had significantly better physical and mental quality of life, compared with respondents who did not exercise regularly. Despite exercising regularly, respondents with T2DM had significantly worse quality of life, compared with respondents without diabetes who exercised regularly. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent and costly disease. Across the world, there are 285 million adults, aged 20?79 years, with diabetes [1]. This is projected to increase to 439 million people globally by 2030 [1]. In the United States, there are 23.6 million adults 20 years or older with diabetes, and approximately 90% of them have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [2]. Approximately 24% of the 23.6 million Americans have undiagnosed diabetes which has not come to medical attention [2]. An additional 57 million people in the US have prediabetes, increasing their risk of developing frank diabetes [2]. The increasing prevalence of T2DM is directly related to an increasing rise in the prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity, with an estimated 97 million US adults being overweight or obese [3, 4]. Approximately two-thirds of US adult men and women diagnosed with T2DM have a body mass index (BMI) of 27?kg/ or greater [5]. National surveys have reported that 27% of US adults did not engage in any physical activity and another 28% were not regularly active [6]. With this global burden, it is important to manage and control diabetes to prevent development of complications. Regular exercise and weight management are key self-management treatments for individuals with T2DM. The American
Ultrasound settings significantly alter arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements
Kathleen Potter, Christopher J Reed, Daniel J Green, Graeme J Hankey, Leonard F Arnolda
Cardiovascular Ultrasound , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-7120-6-6
Abstract: We constructed phantom arteries from a tissue-mimicking agar compound and scanned them in a water bath with a 10 MHz multi-frequency linear-array probe attached to a high-resolution ultrasound machine. B-mode images of the phantoms were recorded with dynamic range (DR) and gain set at five decibel (dB) increments from 40 dB to 60 dB and -10 dB to +10 dB respectively. Lumen diameter and wall-thickness were measured off-line using CIMT measurement software.Lumen measurements: there was a strong linear relationship between DR and gain and measured lumen diameter. For a given gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR reduced the measured lumen diameter by 0.02 ± 0.004 mm (p < 0.001). For a given DR level, a 5 dB increase in gain reduced measured lumen diameter by 0.04 ± 0.004 mm (p < 0.001). A 5 mm increase in distance between the ultrasound probe and the artery reduced measured lumen diameter by 0.04 ± 0.03 mm (p < 0.001)CIMT measurements: For a fixed gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR increased measured wall thickness by 0.003 ± 0.002 mm (p < 0.001). The effects of increasing gain were not consistent and appeared to vary depending on the distance between the artery and the ultrasound probe and the thickness of the artery wall.DR, gain and probe distance significantly alter lumen diameter and CIMT measurements made using image analysis software. When CIMT and FMD are used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions, the DR, gain and probe position used to record baseline scans should be documented and replicated in post-treatment scans in individual trial subjects. If more than one sonographer or imaging centre is used to collect data, the study protocol should document specific DR and gain settings to be used in all subjects.Carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are widely accepted as indicators of early atherosclerotic change [1,2]. CIMT and FMD are both measured using transcutaneous ultrasound: CIMT is the distance between the lum
The effect of long-term homocysteine-lowering on carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated vasodilation in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial and meta-analysis
Kathleen Potter, Graeme J Hankey, Daniel J Green, John Eikelboom, Konrad Jamrozik, Leonard F Arnolda
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-8-24
Abstract: We conducted a sub-study of VITATOPS, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial designed to test the efficacy of long term B-vitamin supplementation (folic acid 2 mg, vitamin B6 25 mg and vitamin B12 0.5 mg) in the prevention of vascular events in patients with a history of stroke. We measured carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at least two years after randomisation in 162 VITATOPS participants. We also conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies designed to test the effect of B-vitamin treatment on CIMT and FMD.After a mean treatment period of 3.9 ± 0.9 years, the vitamin-treated group had a significantly lower mean plasma homocysteine concentration than the placebo-treated group (7.9 μmol/L, 95% CI 7.5 to 8.4 versus 11.8 μmol/L, 95% CI 10.9 to 12.8, p < 0.001). Post-treatment CIMT (0.84 ± 0.17 mm vitamins versus 0.83 ± 0.18 mm placebo, p = 0.74) and FMD (median of 4.0%, IQR 0.9 to 7.2 vitamins versus 3.0%, IQR 0.6 to 6.6 placebo, p = 0.48) did not differ significantly between groups. A meta-analysis of published randomised data, including those from the current study, suggested that B-vitamin supplements should reduce CIMT (-0.10 mm, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.01 mm) and increase FMD (1.4%, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.1%). However, the improvement in endothelial function associated with homocysteine-lowering treatment was significant in short-term studies but not in longer trials.Although short-term treatment with B-vitamins is associated with increased FMD, long-term homocysteine-lowering did not significantly improve FMD or CIMT in people with a history of stroke.Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.actr.org.au/ webciteTrial Registration number: 12605000005651An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration (tHcy) is associated an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke [1-4]. It remains unclear, however, whether tHcy is a modifiable causal risk factor for vascular disease or simply a marker
Quality of Life, Depression, and Healthcare Resource Utilization among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Concomitant Hypertension and Obesity: A Prospective Survey
Andrew J. Green,Debbra D. Bazata,Kathleen M. Fox,Susan Grandy
Cardiology Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/404107
Abstract: Background. This study compared quality of life, depression, and healthcare resource utilization among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and comorbid hypertension (HTN) and obesity with those of adults reporting T2DM alone. Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD survey self-reported their height, weight, comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits and completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Respondents reporting T2DM and HTN and obesity (body mass index, BMI, ≥30?kg/m2) were compared with a T2DM-alone group. Results. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity ( ) had significantly lower SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (37.3 and 50.9, resp.) than T2DM-alone respondents ( ) (45.8 and 53.5, resp., ). Mean PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher among T2DM respondents with comorbid HTN and obesity (5.0 versus 2.5, ), indicating greater depression burden. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity had significantly more resource utilization with respect to physician visits and emergency room visits but not hospitalizations than respondents with T2DM alone ( ). Conclusions. SHIELD respondents with comorbid conditions of T2DM, HTN, and obesity reported greater healthcare resource utilization, more depression symptoms, and lower quality of life than the T2DM-alone group. 1. Background Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are likely to have other health conditions that may adversely impact their health status and glycemic control [1, 2]. Hypertension (HTN), obesity, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking act as independent modifiable contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes [3]. Current American Diabetes Association and International Diabetes Federation standards of medical care aim to reduce the vascular complications through control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids [4, 5]. Individuals with T2DM are known to have lower quality of life and more depressive symptomatology than those without diabetes [4–6], yet the impact may be partially due to comorbid conditions. Additionally, adults with diabetes have been shown to be frequent consumers of healthcare resources for routine physician visits, eye and foot examinations, monitoring of therapy, and management of glucose and other comorbid conditions [7, 8]. Thus, it would be hypothesized that individuals with T2DM and comorbid conditions of HTN and obesity would have a greater negative impact on quality of life, greater burden of depression, and greater use of healthcare resources if these
Trends in Method of Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results from SHIELD
Helena W. Rodbard,Andrew J. Green,Kathleen M. Fox,Susan Grandy
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/796206
Abstract: Aims. This study assessed whether recent screening recommendations have led to increased diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through routine screening. Methods. Respondents to the 2006 US SHIELD survey reported whether a physician told them they had T2DM, age at diagnosis, specialty of the physician who made the diagnosis, and whether the diagnosis was made after having symptoms, during routine screening, or when being treated for another health problem. Results. Of 3 022 T2DM respondents, 36% of respondents reported that T2DM diagnosis was made during routine screening alone, 20% after having symptoms alone, and 6% when being treated for another health problem alone. The proportion of T2DM respondents reporting a diagnosis based only on screening increased approximately 42% over a 15
The Desmosomal Armadillo Protein Plakoglobin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Adhesion and Motility through Vitronectin-Dependent Src Signaling
Carrie A. Franzen,Viktor Todorovi?,Bhushan V. Desai,Salida Mirzoeva,Ximing J. Yang,Kathleen J. Green,Jill C. Pelling
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042132
Abstract: Plakoglobin (PG) is an armadillo protein that associates with both classic and desmosomal cadherins, but is primarily concentrated in mature desmosomes in epithelia. While reduced levels of PG have been reported in localized and hormone refractory prostate tumors, the functional significance of these changes is unknown. Here we report that PG expression is reduced in samples of a prostate tumor tissue array and inversely correlated with advancing tumor potential in 7 PCa cell lines. Ectopically expressed PG enhanced intercellular adhesive strength, and attenuated the motility and invasion of aggressive cell lines, whereas silencing PG in less tumorigenic cells had the opposite effect. PG also regulated cell-substrate adhesion and motility through extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent inhibition of Src kinase, suggesting that PG’s effects were not due solely to increased intercellular adhesion. PG silencing resulted in elevated levels of the ECM protein vitronectin (VN), and exposing PG-expressing cells to VN induced Src activity. Furthermore, increased VN levels and Src activation correlated with diminished expression of PG in patient tissues. Thus, PG may inhibit Src by keeping VN low. Our results suggest that loss of intercellular adhesion due to reduced PG expression might be exacerbated by activation of Src through a PG-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, PG down-regulation during PCa progression could contribute to the known VN-dependent promotion of PCa invasion and metastasis, demonstrating a novel functional interaction between desmosomal cell-cell adhesion and cell-substrate adhesion signaling axes in prostate cancer.
Ordered Assembly of the Adhesive and Electrochemical Connections within Newly Formed Intercalated Disks in Primary Cultures of Adult Rat Cardiomyocytes
Sarah B. Geisler,Kathleen J. Green,Lori L. Isom,Sasha Meshinchi,Jeffrey R. Martens,Mario Delmar,Mark W. Russell
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/624719
Abstract: The intercalated disk (ID) is a complex structure that electromechanically couples adjoining cardiac myocytes into a functional syncitium. The integrity of the disk is essential for normal cardiac function, but how the diverse elements are assembled into a fully integrated structure is not well understood. In this study, we examined the assembly of new IDs in primary cultures of adult rat cardiac myocytes. From 2 to 5 days after dissociation, the cells flatten and spread, establishing new cell-cell contacts in a manner that recapitulates the in vivo processes that occur during heart development and myocardial remodeling. As cells make contact with their neighbors, transmembrane adhesion proteins localize along the line of apposition, concentrating at the sites of membrane attachment of the terminal sarcomeres. Cx43 gap junctions and ankyrin-G, an essential cytoskeletal component of voltage gated sodium channel complexes, were secondarily recruited to membrane domains involved in cell-cell contacts. The consistent order of the assembly process suggests that there are specific scaffolding requirements for integration of the mechanical and electrochemical elements of the disk. Defining the relationships that are the foundation of disk assembly has important implications for understanding the mechanical dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias that accompany alterations of ID architecture.
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