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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 463012 matches for " Kathleen A. Cagney "
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Is Collective Efficacy Age Graded? The Development and Evaluation of a New Measure of Collective Efficacy for Older Adults
Adena M. Galinsky,Kathleen A. Cagney,Christopher R. Browning
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/360254
Abstract: Objectives. Community processes are key determinants of older adults’ ability to age in place, but existing scales measuring these constructs may not provide accurate, unbiased measurements among older adults because they were designed with the concerns of child-rearing respondents in mind. This study examines the properties of a new theory-based measure of collective efficacy (CE) that accounts for the perspectives of older residents. Methods. Data come from the population-based Chicago Neighborhood Organization, Aging and Health study (N = 1,151), which surveyed adults aged 65 to 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlations, and factor analysis, we explored the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new measure. Results. Principal component analysis indicated that the new scale measures a single latent factor. It had good internal consistency reliability, was highly correlated with the original scale, and was similarly associated with neighborhood exchange and disorder, self-rated health, mobility, and loneliness. The new scale also showed less age-differentiated nonresponse compared to the original scale. Discussion. The older adult CE scale has reliability and validity equivalent to that of the existing measure but benefits from a more developed theoretical grounding and reduced likelihood of age-related differential nonresponse. 1. Introduction Evidence suggests that community processes are important to older adults’ ability to age in place [1, 2]. Of the eight factors identified in the World Health Organization’s report on age-friendly cities [3], three seem fundamentally dependent on community processes. These three, Age-Friendly Outdoor Spaces (WHO factor 1), Social Participation (WHO factor 4), and Respect and Social Inclusion (WHO factor 5) may all be supported by structural innovations and resource infusion, but, in all likelihood, cannot be sustained without on-going community involvement. Community-level behavior is important not only for the immediate results produced by discrete actions and social exchange, but also for its role in shaping the perceptions and norms of behavior held by the community’s residents. The perceptions and norms of behavior likely relevant to the three WHO factors fall under the rubric of a well-developed sociological construct, collective efficacy. Collective efficacy (CE) refers to perceptions and norms of two categories of social processes that represent two kinds of community social resources: trust and connection, commonly referred to as social cohesion, and expectations for action, commonly
Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency disrupts endocytosis, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial protein pathways in the mouse hippocampus
Jane A. English,Akiko Harauma,Melanie F?cking,Kieran Wynne,Caitriona Scaife,Gerard Cagney,Toru Moriguchi
Frontiers in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00208
Abstract: Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) deficiency is an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, yet characterization of the consequences of deficiency at the protein level in the brain is limited. We aimed to identify the protein pathways disrupted as a consequence of chronic n-3 deficiency in the hippocampus of mice. Fatty acid analysis of the hippocampus following chronic dietary deficiency revealed a 3-fold decrease (p < 0.001) in n-3 FA levels. Label free LC-MS/MS analysis identified and profiled 1008 proteins, of which 114 were observed to be differentially expressed between n-3 deficient and control groups (n = 8 per group). The cellular processes that were most implicated were neuritogenesis, endocytosis, and exocytosis, while specific protein pathways that were most significantly dysregulated were mitochondrial dysfunction and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). In order to characterize whether these processes and pathways are ones influenced by antipsychotic medication, we used LC-MS/MS to test the differential expression of these 114 proteins in the hippocampus of mice chronically treated with the antipsychotic agent haloperidol. We observed 23 of the 114 proteins to be differentially expressed, 17 of which were altered in the opposite direction to that observed following n-3 deficiency. Overall, our findings point to disturbed synaptic function, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial function as a consequence of dietary deficiency in n-3 FA. This study greatly aids our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which n-3 deficiency impairs normal brain function, and provides clues as to how n-3 FA exert their therapeutic effect in early psychosis.
Getting by with a Little Help from My Friends: Mental Rotation Ability after Tacit Peer Encouragement  [PDF]
Sheila Brownlow, Amanda J. Janas, Kathleen A. Blake, Kathleen T. Rebadow, Lindsay M. Mello
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24057
Abstract: We examined how Mental Rotation (MR) ability was improved by presenting information that the task was one that could be accomplished. This information purportedly came from either peers or the experimenter. Men and women students completed 10 MR items from the Purdue Visualization of Rotations Test (Bodner & Guay, 1997) and provided self-reports about their confidence in their abilities to perform rotations, background skills and experiences, and effort with the task. The peer-presentation technique improved performance on MR, as both men and women who read that other students had previously managed the tasks performed better than those who merely heard about the tasks, leaving an implied difficulty unaddressed or “in the air.” When self-reported confidence in MR ability was held constant there were no gender differences in MR performance. The results suggest that appropriate peer models may improve performance on cognitive tasks, perhaps by increasing confidence in ability.
Whose Civil Society?: The Politicization of Religion in Transitional Cuba
Kathleen A. Tobin
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2004,
Abstract: For decades, the United States has supported the development of civil society in various places around the world. Promoted as integral to democracy, civil society projects have come to include religion and religious freedom as significant components. U.S. experts point to tolerance of all faiths and the presence of voluntary religious association as essential checks to state power and necessary to a free society. Because of its unique relationship with Cuba, the United States support of civil society there has addressed religion in a way unlike that in other countries. This article examines very recent developments there, placing them in larger social and historical context of politics and church/state relations.
International Birth Control Politics: The Evolution of a Catholic Contraceptive Debate in Latin America
Kathleen A. Tobin
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2002,
Abstract: Official Catholic opposition to contraception has long been portrayed as a stand that is based in antiquated doctrine and "out of touch" with society and its problems. In fact, Catholic arguments often have been less devoted to doctrine and more reflective of concerns for social justice and human rights. This was certainly the case in Latin America, as international birth control programs evolved in the mid to late 20th century. Programs were targeted at developing nations like those in Latin America which were experiencing what was termed a "population explosion." This article describes how, in this primarily Catholic region, Catholic authorities responded to population policy, arguing that overpopulation should not be considered the primary cause of economic strife, nor should birth control be promoted as the solution.
International Birth Control Politics: The Evolution of a Catholic Contraceptive Debate in Latin America
Kathleen A. Tobin
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2002,
Abstract: Official Catholic opposition to contraception has long been portrayed as a stand that is based in antiquated doctrine and out of touch with society and its problems. In fact, Catholic arguments often have been less devoted to doctrine and more reflective of concerns for social justice and human rights. This was certainly the case in Latin America, as international birth control programs evolved in the mid to late 20th century. Programs were targeted at developing nations like those in Latin America which were experiencing what was termed a population explosion. This article describes how, in this primarily Catholic region, Catholic authorities responded to popula- tion policy, arguing that overpopulation should not be considered the primary cause of economic strife, nor should birth control be promoted as the solution.
Resource list for cognitive motor and sensory supports in persons with autism
Kathleen A. Berger
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00007
Abstract:
Praxis and autism: the psychomotor regulation sensory processing dimension—a report from the field
Kathleen A. Berger
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00129
Abstract:
Warming up with Pressure Improves Subsequent Clutch Performance on a Golf-Putting Task  [PDF]
Desmond McEwan, Rodney Schmaltz, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.24025
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to determine if athletic performance in a high-pressure situation is improved by briefly warming up under high-pressure conditions. Participants first completed a warm up round of golf putting (five shots) under low, moderate, or high pressure. Following a short break, participants completed a single putt under high pressure. Participants who completed the warm up under high pressure performed significantly better on the subsequent high-pressure shot than those who warmed up under low pressure. Warming up under pressure may be an effective means of improving performance in an impending high-pressure situation.
Cyst aspiration with gonadotropin suppression in ovarian remnant syndrome with ureteral obstruction: A case report  [PDF]
David J. DeWitt, Kathleen Eyster, Keith A. Hansen
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.24071
Abstract: Background: Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) is characterized by functional ovarian tissue following bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. ORS presents with pelvic pain or mass, but may also present with urinary tract symptoms resulting from enlarging residual tissue. Case: A 37 year old woman presented with pelvic pain radiating to her flank due to ureteral obstruction from an enlarging ovarian cyst in ORS. Transvaginal ultrasound guided, ovarian cyst aspiration accompanied by leuprolide acetate gonadotropin suppression resulted in acute and chronic relief of ureteral obstruction. Conclusion: This case demonstrated successful treatment of ureteral obstruction caused by an ovarian cyst in a patient with ORS via cyst aspiration and leuprolide acetate gonadotropin suppression. This treatment is a viable alternative for management of ORS, but sacrifices pathologic diagnosis when compared to traditional surgical resection.
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