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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4531 matches for " Katherine Turner "
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Public use of the Internet at Chester library, UK.
Katherine Turner,Margaret Kendall
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2000,
Abstract: Substantial investment is accelerating the provision of public access to the Internet in UK public libraries. Monitoring and evaluation will be essential to inform policies, developments and justify the new services. This paper reports on quantitative and qualitative research into the use being made of the Internet facilities at Chester Library between August 1998 and May 1999. A questionnaire survey of 178 users revealed substantial use by non-library members, mostly aged between 16 and 35, with only slightly higher use by men than by women. Most of the sample had received no formal training in Internet use and the most popular application was e-mail. Follow-up interviews with 9 users provide examples of the value of the service to users and recommendations for increased training and support from librarians. Analysis of the results includes recommendations for Chester libraries and contributes to the wider debate on the changing roles of public libraries. Further research on the monitoring and evaluation of IT-based services in public libraries is now underway at Manchester Metropolitan University, with Cheshire libraries being one of three library authority project partners in VITAL, an 18 month study funded by the Library and Information Commission.
The Detrimental Effect of Adversity on HIV Outcomes in the Era of Combined Anti-Retroviral Therapy  [PDF]
Corrado Cancedda, Katherine S. Eddens, Olumuyiwa Adebona, Revathi Ravi, Enbal Shacham, Edgar Turner Overton
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.24045
Abstract: Socially disadvantaged individuals with HIV experience unacceptably high rates of AIDS and death. The authors developed an adversity index to quantify the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on HIV care. This retrospective cohort study included 431 participants with HIV on combined antiretroviral therapy between 2000 and 2005. Poor outcome was defined as progression to AIDS, death, virologic failure, or CD4 < 200 cells/μl at six months. The index utilized eight demographic and psychosocial variables independently associated with poor outcome. Exposure to higher numbers of variables in the adversity index significantly increased the rates of poor outcome from 14% (exposure to no variables) to 100% (exposure to seven variables). The odds of poor outcome decreased but remained significant after adjusting for adherence-defining variables, indicating a possible mediating effect of poor adherence. Durably effective therapeutic strategies must include addressing adverse demographic and psychosocial factors affecting people living with HIV.
Conservancies in British Columbia, Canada: Bringing Together Protected Areas and First Nations' Interests
Katherine L. Turner,Christopher P.H. Bitonti
International Indigenous Policy Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The new protected area (PA) designation of Conservancy in British Columbia, Canada marks a positive shift in government policy concerning PAs and the role of First Nations in provincial land and resource management and conservation. We present a review of the Conservancy designation within a legal and political ecologycontext, and assess some of the related opportunities and challenges presented by this new designation. Our data were gathered through document, literature and legal reviews, complemented by field research observations and personal communications with key informants from the Gitga'at First Nation.
Whole Genome Sequencing Highlights Genetic Changes Associated with Laboratory Domestication of C. elegans
Katherine P. Weber,Subhajyoti De,Iwanka Kozarewa,Daniel J. Turner,M. Madan Babu,Mario de Bono
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013922
Abstract: Defining the mutational landscape when individuals of a species grow separately and diverge over many generations can provide insights into trait evolution. A specific example of this involves studying changes associated with domestication where different lines of the same wild stock have been cultivated independently in different standard environments. Whole genome sequence comparison of such lines permits estimation of mutation rates, inference of genes' ancestral states and ancestry of existing strains, and correction of sequencing errors in genome databases. Here we study domestication of the C. elegans Bristol strain as a model, and report the genome sequence of LSJ1 (Bristol), a sibling of the standard C. elegans reference wild type N2 (Bristol). The LSJ1 and N2 lines were cultivated separately from shortly after the Bristol strain was isolated until methods to freeze C. elegans were developed. We find that during this time the two strains have accumulated 1208 genetic differences. We describe phenotypic variation between N2 and LSJ1 in the rate at which embryos develop, the rate of production of eggs, the maturity of eggs at laying, and feeding behavior, all the result of post-isolation changes. We infer the ancestral alleles in the original Bristol isolate and highlight 2038 likely sequencing errors in the original N2 reference genome sequence. Many of these changes modify genome annotation. Our study provides a starting point to further investigate genotype-phenotype association and offers insights into the process of selection as a result of laboratory domestication.
Health state preferences associated with weight status in children and adolescents
Mandy B Belfort, John AF Zupancic, Katherine M Riera, Jane HG Turner, Lisa A Prosser
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-12
Abstract: We enrolled 76 children 5-18 years of age from a primary care clinic and an obesity clinic in Boston MA. We administered the Health Utilities Index (HUI) and used the HUI Mark 3 single- and multi-attribute utility functions to calculate health utilities. We determined BMI percentile and weight status based on CDC references. We examined single-attribute and overall utilities in relation to weight status and BMI.Mean (range) age was 10.8 (5-18) years. Mean (SD) BMI percentile was 76 (26); 55% of children were overweight or obese. The mean (SD) overall utility was 0.79 (0.17) in the entire sample. For healthy-weight children, the mean overall utility was higher than for overweight or obese children (0.81 vs. 0.78), but the difference was not statistically significant (difference 0.04, 95% CI -0.04, 0.11).Our results provide a quantitative estimate of the health utility associated with overweight and obesity in children, and will be helpful to researchers performing cost effectiveness analyses of interventions to prevent and/or treat childhood obesity.Childhood obesity is a substantial and growing public health problem [1] and numerous interventions for its treatment and prevention have been developed [2,3]. In deciding which interventions are most efficient, cost-effectiveness analysis can be used to compare the intervention-associated costs with the benefits, including improvements in health status [4]. Previous research has demonstrated that in children and adolescents, higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower health related quality of life (HRQOL) [5-9], suggesting that preventing or treating obesity would improve children's HRQOL. While the HRQOL measures used in those studies are useful for describing health status, they are not applicable to cost-effectiveness analysis because they do not reflect the value attached to the health status, either by the participants or by society.One well-accepted economic method for quantifying people's value for heal
Atypically diffuse functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex in autism
Katherine C Turner, Leonard Frost, David Linsenbardt, John R McIlroy, Ralph-Axel Müller
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-2-34
Abstract: Our sample was comprised of 8 high-functioning males with autism and 8 handedness, sex, and age-matched controls. Subjects underwent functional MRI scanning during performance on simple visuomotor coordination tasks. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) effects were identified as interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal cross-correlation, using the caudate nuclei as seed volumes.In the control group, fcMRI effects were found in circuits with known participation of the caudate nuclei (associative, orbitofrontal, oculomotor, motor circuits). Although in the autism group fcMRI effects within these circuits were less pronounced or absent, autistic subjects showed diffusely increased connectivity mostly in pericentral regions, but also in brain areas outside expected anatomical circuits (such as visual cortex).These atypical connectivity patterns may be linked to developmental brain growth disturbances recently reported in autism and suggest inefficiently organized functional connectivity between caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, potentially accounting for stereotypic behaviors and executive impairments.Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting social, cognitive, linguistic and sensorimotor abilities. These qualitative deficits are pervasive and long lasting. While genetic factors are known to be strong [1], consistent neurological markers for the disorder remain to be fully established. Behavioral markers identifying deficits in sensorimotor processing and social skills are apparent as early as one year of age [2,3]. Sensorimotor deficits include fine motor apraxia [4-6], reduced postural control [7,8], and impaired imitation [9]. Individuals with autism also have delays in language development [10], impaired attention [11], as well as deficits in executive cognitive processes [12,13]. These developmental abnormalities are often discovered during the preschool years. Among the brain areas suspected to be involved in both sensorimotor and co
Housing, income support and mental health: Points of disconnection
Cheryl Forchuk, Libbey Joplin, Ruth Schofield, Rick Csiernik, Carolyne Gorlick, Katherine Turner
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-5-14
Abstract: There exists a well known relationship between the presence of a mental illness and increased rates of poverty and homelessness. However, the exact dynamics of this relationship has remained somewhat unclear especially in the context of present day Ontario. While early literature suggested that these increased rates of homelessness and unstable housing were due to the presence of a mental illness [1,2]. More recent literature has suggested that these increased rates are more likely the result of an overall lack of affordable housing [3-5]. In Canada, the lack of national housing, mental health and income policies have further added to the basic problems related to the issues of housing and mental health. At the provincial level in Ontario, an examination of the policies pertaining to the issues of housing development, income support and mental health brings to light a large area of disconnect existing between these policy realms. The purpose of this paper is to answer, by means of an analysis of the available research literature, the questions; what are these areas of policy disconnect and what is their impact on those who rely on these policies?Under section 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867, responsibility for the development of social housing rests with the provincial government however the federal government has the ability to unilaterally initiate social housing programs under the Peace, Order, and Good Government Clause of the Act, as long as these programs are determined by the courts to be in the national interest. Until the 1990s the federal government was involved with a number of different partners, including the provincial governments, in the development of social housing stock. However, at that time, the federal government transferred administrative responsibility for the majority of this housing stock to the provincial governments and has since proceeded to further cut the funding of programs supporting the development of new housing stock. Presently, t
Health-related quality of life in adults with epilepsy: the effect of age, age at onset and duration of epilepsy in a multicentre Italian study
Valeria Edefonti, Francesca Bravi, Katherine Turner, Ettore Beghi, Maria Canevini, Monica Ferraroni, Ada Piazzini
BMC Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-33
Abstract: We examined this association in a selected population of 815 adults with epilepsy recruited in the context of a multicentre study for the evaluation of Epi-QoL, one of the first Italian epilepsy-specific measures of HRQOL for adults with epilepsy. The Epi-QoL is a 46-item self-administered questionnaire focusing on six domains, which was successfully tested for reproducibility and validity. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to assess the relationships between age-related factors (patient's age, age at seizure onset, and duration of epilepsy) and overall Epi-QoL score, controlling for the effect of potential confounders. We fitted simple regression models including each age-related factor alone to assess the independent role of each factor on the overall Epi-QoL score. We also fitted multiple regression models including pairs of age-related factors solely, as well as one or two age-related factors together with the same set of confounders.Simple regression models showed that age and duration of epilepsy were significant negative predictors of the overall Epi-QoL score: the higher was each age-related factor, the lower was the overall Epi-QoL score; age at onset alone was a nonsignificant predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score. Multiple regression models including two age-related factors solely showed that duration of epilepsy was still a significant negative predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score in both pairwise models, whereas age was a significant negative predictor only in the model including age at onset. Age at onset emerged as a significant positive predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score only in the model including age: the higher was age at onset, the higher was the overall Epi-QoL score. Adjusted regression models including either one or two age-related factors and controlling for the selected confounding variables showed that the age-related factors had no significant effect on the overall Epi-QoL score anymore.If no other known correlates
Assessing the reliability of eBURST using simulated populations with known ancestry
Katherine ME Turner, William P Hanage, Christophe Fraser, Thomas R Connor, Brian G Spratt
BMC Microbiology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-7-30
Abstract: For strictly clonal simulations, where all allelic change is due to point mutation, the groups of related strains identified by eBURST were very similar to those expected from the true ancestry and most of the true ancestor-descendant relationships (90–98%) were identified by eBURST. Populations simulated with low or moderate levels of recombination showed similarly high performance but the reliability of eBURST declined with increasing recombination to mutation ratio. Populations simulated under a high recombination to mutation ratio were dominated by a single large straggly eBURST group, which resulted from the incorrect linking of unrelated groups of strains into the same eBURST group. The reliability of the ancestor-descendant links in eBURST diagrams was related to the proportion of strains in the largest eBURST group, which provides a useful guide to when eBURST is likely to be unreliable.Examination of eBURST groups within populations of a range of bacterial species showed that most were within the range in which eBURST is reliable, and only a small number (e.g. Burkholderia pseudomallei and Enterococcus faecium) appeared to have such high rates of recombination that eBURST is likely to be unreliable. The study also demonstrates how three simple tests in eBURST v3 can be used to detect unreliable eBURST performance and recognise populations in which there appears to be a high rate of recombination relative to mutation.In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on the use of digital data to characterise strains of bacterial species. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms and multiple variable number tandem repeats have been used for digital strain characterisation of species that genetically are highly uniform [1-5] and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been used widely for more variable species [6,7]. In MLST, the relatedness among strains is typically displayed as a dendrogram, based on differences in allelic profiles, which identifies clusters
Developing a realistic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission in Britain
Katherine ME Turner, Elisabeth J Adams, Nigel Gay, Azra C Ghani, Catherine Mercer, W John Edmunds
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-3-3
Abstract: The model parameters were estimated either directly or by systematic fitting to a variety of appropriate data sources. The fitted model was representative of sexual behaviour, chlamydia epidemiology and health care use in England. We were able to recapture the observed age distribution of chlamydia prevalence.Estimating parameters for models of sexual behaviour and transmission of chlamydia is complex. Most of the parameter values are highly correlated, highly variable and there is little empirical evidence to inform estimates. We used a novel approach to estimate the rate of active treatment seeking, by combining data sources, which improved the credibility of the model results. The model structure is flexible and is broadly applicable to other developed world settings and provides a practical tool for public health decision makers.Chlamydia is a very common, curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. Chlamydia prevalence in young women attending general practice in Britain was estimated to be 8.1% in those under 20 and 5.2% in those aged 20–24 [1], and is similar in other developed countries. Many infections are asymptomatic, resulting in a large reservoir of undetected, untreated infections [2]. Untreated chlamydia infection may result in long-term sequelae in women including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ectopic pregnancy [3]. Detection of chlamydia has become easier with the recent introduction of rapid, sensitive, affordable, and non-invasive DNA tests [4]. Treatment is also straightforward and inexpensive with doxycycline or azithromycin [5]. Chlamydia screening therefore, has been or is being implemented in various developed countries including USA, Sweden, Netherlands, and UK [6-9]. However much of the epidemiology of chlamydia remains poorly understood [10] and there are many questions regarding the long term impact of interventions, such as how much PID is attributable to chlamydia infection and what
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