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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 263583 matches for " Kate Y. L. Su "
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Signpost of Multiple Planets in Debris Disks
Kate Y. L. Su,George H. Rieke
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921313008764
Abstract: We review the nearby debris disk structures revealed by multi-wavelength images from Spitzer and Herschel, and complemented with detailed spectral energy distribution modeling. Similar to the definition of habitable zones around stars, debris disk structures should be identified and characterized in terms of dust temperatures rather than physical distances so that the heating power of different spectral type of stars is taken into account and common features in disks can be discussed and compared directly. Common features, such as warm (~150 K) dust belts near the water-ice line and cold (~50 K) Kuiper-belt analogs, give rise to our emerging understanding of the levels of order in debris disk structures and illuminate various processes about the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems. In light of the disk structures in the debris disk twins (Vega and Fomalhaut), and the current limits on the masses of planetary objects, we suggest that the large gap between the warm and cold dust belts is the best signpost for multiple (low-mass) planets beyond the water-ice line.
High-Resolution Near-Infrared Imaging and Polarimetry of Four Proto-Planetary Nebulae
Kate Y. L. Su,Bruce J. Hrivnak,Sun Kwok,Raghvendra Sahai
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/376471
Abstract: High-resolution near-infrared HST NICMOS (F160W, F222M) images and polarization (2 um) observations were made of four bipolar proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs): IRAS 17150-3224, IRAS 17441-2411, IRAS 17245-3951, and IRAS 16594-4656. The first three of these are viewed nearly edge-on, and for the first time the central stars in them are seen. Color maps reveal a reddened torus between the bipolar lobes in the edge-on cases, with bluer lobes. The polarization values are high, with maximum values ranging from 40 to 80%. The polarization patterns are basically centrosymmetric, with some deviations in the low polarization equatorial regions. For IRAS 17150-3224, circumstellar arcs are seen at 1.6 um, along with a newly-discovered loop in the equatorial region. Bright caps are seen at the end of the lobes, indicating that they are not open-ended. A distinct point-symmetric pattern is seen in the strengths of the polarization vectors, especially in IRAS 17150-3224. HST NICMOS observations provide a valuable complement to the WFPC2 visible images in deriving the basic structure of bipolar PPNs.
Could the planets around HR 8799 be brown dwarfs?
Amaya Moro-Martin,George H. Rieke,Kate Y. L. Su
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/721/2/L199
Abstract: We consider the limiting case for orbital stability of the companions to HR 8799. This case is only consistent with ages for the system of ~100 Myr, not with the 1 Gyr age proposed from astroseismology. The discrepancy probably arises because the inclination of the star is smaller than assumed in analyzing the astroseismology data. Given this young age, the best estimates of the companion masses place them by a small margin on the planet side of the division between planets and brown dwarfs.
Searching for Saturn's Dust Swarm: Limits on the size distribution of Irregular Satellites from km to micron sizes
Grant M. Kennedy,Mark C. Wyatt,Kate Y. L. Su,John A. Stansberry
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19409.x
Abstract: We describe a search for dust created in collisions between the Saturnian irregular satellites using archival \emph{Spitzer} MIPS observations. Although we detected a degree scale Saturn-centric excess that might be attributed to an irregular satellite dust cloud, we attribute it to the far-field wings of the PSF due to nearby Saturn. The Spitzer PSF is poorly characterised at such radial distances, and we expect PSF characterisation to be the main issue for future observations that aim to detect such dust. The observations place an upper limit on the level of dust in the outer reaches of the Saturnian system, and constrain how the size distribution extrapolates from the smallest known (few km) size irregulars down to micron-size dust. Because the size distribution is indicative of the strength properties of irregulars, we show how our derived upper limit implies irregular satellite strengths more akin to comets than asteroids. This conclusion is consistent with their presumed capture from the outer regions of the Solar System.
Debris Distribution in HD 95086 - A Young Analog of HR 8799
Kate Y. L. Su,Sarah Morrison,Renu Malhotra,Paul S. Smith,Zoltan Balog,George H. Rieke
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/146
Abstract: HD 95086 is a young early-type star that hosts (1) a 5 MJ planet at the projected distance of 56 AU revealed by direct imaging, and (2) a prominent debris disk. Here we report the detection of 69 um crystalline olivine feature from the disk using the Spitzer/MIPS-SED data covering 55-95 um. Due to the low resolution of MIPS-SED mode, this feature is not spectrally resolved, but is consistent with the emission from crystalline forsterite contributing 5% of the total dust mass. We also present detailed analysis of the disk SED and re-analysis of resolved images obtained by Herschel. Our results suggest that the debris structure around HD 95086 consists of a warm (175 K) belt, a cold (55 K) disk, and an extended disk halo (up to 800 AU), and is very similar to that of HR 8799. We compare the properties of the three debris components, and suggest that HD 95086 is a young analog of HR 8799. We further investigate and constrain single-planet, two-planet, three-planet and four-planet architectures that can account for the observed debris structure and are compatible with dynamical stability constraints. We find that equal-mass four-planet configurations of geometrically spaced orbits, with each planet of mass 5 MJ, could maintain the gap between the warm and cold debris belts, and also be just marginally stable for timescales comparable to the age of the system.
A Spitzer MIPS Study of 2.5-2.0 M\odot Stars in Scorpius-Centaurus
Christine H. Chen,Mark Pecaut,Eric E. Mamajek,Kate Y. L. Su,Martin Bitner
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/133
Abstract: We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {\mu}m and 70 {\mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {\mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25+6%), 36/131 (27+4%), and 23/95 (24+5%) for Upper Scorpius (\sim11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus (\sim15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux (\sim17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from LIR/L\ast = 1e-6 to 1e-2 and grain temperatures ranging from Tgr = 40 - 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {\mu}m and 70 {\mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A type stars are smaller than those measured toward F+G type stars and hypothesize that the observed disk property dependence on stellar mass may be the result of a higher stellar companion fraction around B- and A-type stars at 10 - 200 AU and/or the presence of Jupiter-mass companions in the disks around F- and G- type stars. Finally, we note that the majority of the ScoCen 24 {\mu}m excess sources also possess 12 {\mu}m excess, indicating that Earth-like planets may be forming via collisions in the terrestrial planet zone at \sim10 - 100 Myr.
A Trend Between Cold Debris Disk Temperature and Stellar Type: Implications for the Formation and Evolution of Wide-Orbit Planets
Nicholas P. Ballering,George H. Rieke,Kate Y. L. Su,Edward Montiel
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/775/1/55
Abstract: Cold debris disks trace the limits of planet formation or migration in the outer regions of planetary systems, and thus have the potential to answer many of the outstanding questions in wide-orbit planet formation and evolution. We characterized the infrared excess spectral energy distributions of 174 cold debris disks around 546 main-sequence stars observed by both Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We found a trend between the temperature of the inner edges of cold debris disks and the stellar type of the stars they orbit. This argues against the importance of strictly temperature-dependent processes (e.g. non-water ice lines) in setting the dimensions of cold debris disks. Also, we found no evidence that delayed stirring causes the trend. The trend may result from outward planet migration that traces the extent of the primordial protoplanetary disk, or it may result from planet formation that halts at an orbital radius limited by the efficiency of core accretion.
Variability of the Infrared Excess of Extreme Debris Disks
Huan Y. A. Meng,George H. Rieke,Kate Y. L. Su,Valentin D. Ivanov,Leonardo Vanzi,Wiphu Rujopakarn
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/751/1/L17
Abstract: Debris disks with extremely large infrared excesses (fractional luminosities $> 10^{-2}$) are rare. Those with ages between 30 and 130 Myr are of interest because their evolution has progressed well beyond that of protoplanetary disks (which dissipate with a timescale of order 3 Myr), yet they represent a period when dynamical models suggest that terrestrial planet building may still be progressing through large, violent collisions that could yield large amounts of debris and large infrared excesses. For example, our Moon was formed through a violent collision of two large proto-planets during this age range. We report two disks around the solar-like stars ID8 and HD 23514 in this age range where the 24 {\mu}m infrared excesses vary on timescales of a few years, even though the stars are not variable in the optical. Variations this rapid are difficult to understand if the debris is produced by collisional cascades, as it is for most debris disks. It is possible that the debris in these two systems arises in part from condensates from silicate-rich vapor produced in a series of violent collisions among relatively large bodies. If their evolution is rapid, the rate of detection of extreme excesses would indicate that major collisions may be relatively common in this age range.
Spatially Resolved Images of Dust Belt(s) Around the Planet-hosting Subgiant Kappa CrB
Amy Bonsor,Grant M. Kennedy,Justin R. Crepp,John A. Johnson,Mark C. Wyatt,Bruce Sibthorpe,Kate Y. L. Su
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt367
Abstract: We present Herschel spatially resolved images of the debris disc orbiting the subgiant Kappa CrB. Not only are these the first resolved images of a debris disc orbiting a subgiant, but Kappa CrB is a rare example of an intermediate mass star where a detailed study of the structure of the planetary system can be made, including both planets and planetesimal belt(s). The only way to discover planets around such stars using the radial velocity technique is to observe 'retired' A stars, which are cooler and slower rotators compared to their main-sequence counterparts. A planetary companion has already been detected orbiting the subgiant Kappa CrB, with revised parameters of m sin i = 2.1MJ and apl = 2.8AU (Johnson et al. 2008a). We present additional Keck I HIRES radial velocity measurements that provide evidence for a second planetary companion, alongside Keck II AO imaging that places an upper limit on the mass of this companion. Modelling of our Herschel images shows that the dust is broadly distributed, but cannot distinguish between a single wide belt (from 20 to 220AU) or two narrow dust belts (at around 40 and 165AU). Given the existence of a second planetary companion beyond approximately 3AU it is possible that the absence of dust within approximately 20AU is caused by dynamical depletion, although the observations are not inconsistent with depletion of these regions by collisional erosion, which occurs at higher rates closer to the star.
Large Impacts around a Solar Analog Star in the Era of Terrestrial Planet Formation
Huan Y. A. Meng,Kate Y. L. Su,George H. Rieke,David J. Stevenson,Peter Plavchan,Wiphu Rujopakarn,Carey M. Lisse,Saran Poshyachinda,Daniel E. Reichart
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1126/science.1255153
Abstract: The final assembly of terrestrial planets occurs via massive collisions, which can launch copious clouds of dust that are warmed by the star and glow in the infrared. We report the real-time detection of a debris-producing impact in the terrestrial planet zone around a 35-million year-old solar analog star. We observed a substantial brightening of the debris disk at 3-5 {\mu}m, followed by a decay over a year, with quasi-periodic modulations of the disk flux. The behavior is consistent with the occurrence of a violent impact that produced vapor out of which a thick cloud of silicate spherules condensed that were ground into dust by collisions. These results demonstrate how the time domain can become a new dimension for the study of terrestrial planet formation.
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