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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462480 matches for " Kate A. Cronin "
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Development of a Culturally Appropriate, Home-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum for Wisconsin American Indian Families
Tara L. LaRowe, PhD,Deborah P. Wubben, MD, MPH,Kate A. Cronin, MPH,SuAnne M. Vannatter, RN, BSN
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract: We designed an obesity prevention intervention for American Indian families called Healthy Children, Strong Families using a participatory approach involving three Wisconsin tribes. Healthy Children, Strong Families promotes healthy eating and physical activity for preschool children and their caregivers while respecting each community’s cultural and structural framework. Academic researchers, tribal wellness staff, and American Indian community mentors participated in development of the Healthy Children, Strong Families educational curriculum. The curriculum is based on social cognitive and family systems theories as well as on community eating and activity patterns with adaptation to American Indian cultural values. The curricular materials, which were delivered through a home-based mentoring model, have been successfully received and are being modified so that they can be tailored to individual family needs. The curriculum can serve as a nutrition and physical activity model for health educators that can be adapted for other American Indian preschool children and their families or as a model for development of a culturally specific curriculum.
Just How Big is the Schism Between the Health Sector and the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries?
A. A. Cronin,K. Pond
Environmental Health Insights , 2008,
Abstract: Water, sanitation and hygiene are all key aspects to a healthy environment but often they suffer from a lack of coherence within the sector itself and also a lack of synergy with the health sector. This is not acceptable given one quarter of all child deaths are directly attributable to water-borne disease. This lack of synergy is evident at many different layers including planning, resource allocation and donor commitment. Developing countries must, in consultation with their communities, examine their biggest health risks and allocate resources accordingly. Sustained dialogue and increased in-depth analysis are needed to find consensus and an improved synergy across these vital sectors.
Unbiased estimation of multi-fractal dimensions of finite data sets
A. J. Roberts,A. Cronin
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4371(96)00165-3
Abstract: We present a novel method for determining multi-fractal properties from experimental data. It is based on maximising the likelihood that the given finite data set comes from a particular set of parameters in a multi-parameter family of well known multi-fractals. By comparing characteristic correlations obtained from the original data with those that occur in artificially generated multi-fractals with the {\em same} number of data points, we expect that predicted multi-fractal properties are unbiased by the finiteness of the experimental data.
Gamma Protocadherin Expression in the Embryonic Chick Nervous System
Kenneth D. Cronin, Anthony A. Capehart
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Protocadherin γ (pcdh-γ) family expression was examined in the embryonic chick central nervous system by in situ hybridization. Transcripts were visualized in discrete regions of fore-, mid-, and hindbrain at stages 23 and 25 and in spinal cord and optic lobe at stages 27 and 43, respectively. Results suggest that pcdh-γ may function cooperatively with other cell adhesion molecules in neuronal differentiation and establishment of neural networks in several areas of the developing brain, particularly regions involved in visual processing.
Embryonic and post-embryonic development of the polyclad flatworm Maritigrella crozieri; implications for the evolution of spiralian life history traits
Kate A Rawlinson
Frontiers in Zoology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-7-12
Abstract: After 196 h hours of embryonic development, M. crozieri hatches as a swimming, planktotrophic larva. Larval myoanatomy consists of an orthogonal grid of circular and longitudinal body wall muscles plus parenchymal muscles. Diagonal body wall muscles develop over the planktonic period. Larval neuroanatomy consists of an apical plate, neuropile, paired nerve cords, a peri-oral nerve ring, a medial nerve, a ciliary band nerve net and putative ciliary photoreceptors. Apical neural elements develop first followed by posterior perikarya and later pharyngeal neural elements. The ciliated larva is encircled by a continuous, pre-oral band of longer cilia, which follows the distal margins of the lobes; it also possesses distinct apical and caudal cilia.Within polyclads heterochronic shifts in the development of diagonal bodywall and pharyngeal muscles are correlated with life history strategies and feeding requirements. In contrast to many spiralians, M. crozieri hatch with well developed nervous and muscular systems. Comparisons of the ciliary bands and apical organs amongst spiralian planktonic life-stages reveal differences; M. crozieri lack a distinct ciliary band muscle and flask-shaped epidermal serotonergic cells of the apical organ. Based on current phylogenies, the distribution of ciliary bands and apical organs between polyclads and other spiralians is not congruent with a hypothesis of homology. However, some similarities exist, and this study sets an anatomical framework from which to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms that will help to distinguish between parallelism, convergence and homology of these features.Flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) have long been viewed as the sister group to all other bilaterian metazoans, due in large part to their blind gut and relatively simple, acoelomate body plan [1]. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies have forced a re-evaluation of classical hypotheses of metazoan intrarelationships. The Platyhelminthes
Changes to policies for work and retirement in EU15 nations (1995–2005): an exploration of policy packages for the 50-plus cohor
Kate A. Hamblin
International Journal of Ageing and Later Life , 2010,
Abstract: “Active ageing” policies have been presented as a potential panacea for the conflict between generations many argue will result from demographic ageing. Indeed, as part of a new intergenerational contract, older individuals (here defined as those aged 50-64) are expected to re-engage with, and remain in, the labour market longer. However, this implies all individuals experience the same policy mix. This study uses micro-level data to address changes to work and retirement policies for older individuals from 1995 to 2005, and the resultant alterations to the degree of choice in terms of labour market participation different sub-groups within this age cohort had. The data demonstrate that the policy shift towards “active ageing” is not universally applied to all older individuals as some retain the ability to early exit from the labour market. Thus the notion of a single intergenerational contract is overly simplistic and neglects a great deal of intragenerational difference.
Upregulation of the Coagulation Factor VII Gene during Glucose Deprivation Is Mediated by Activating Transcription Factor 4
Katherine R. Cronin, Thomas P. Mangan, Josephine A. Carew
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040994
Abstract: Background Constitutive production of blood coagulation proteins by hepatocytes is necessary for hemostasis. Stressful conditions trigger adaptive cellular responses and delay processing of most proteins, potentially affecting plasma levels of proteins secreted exclusively by hepatocytes. We examined the effect of glucose deprivation on expression of coagulation proteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of coagulation factor VII, which is required for initiation of blood coagulation, was elevated by glucose deprivation, while expression of other coagulation proteins decreased. Realtime PCR and ELISA demonstrated that the relative percentage expression +/? SD of steady-state F7 mRNA and secreted factor VII antigen were significantly increased (from 100+/?15% to 188+/?27% and 100+/?8.8% to 176.3+/?17.3% respectively, p<0.001) at 24 hr of treatment. The integrated stress response was induced, as indicated by upregulation of transcription factor ATF4 and of additional stress-responsive genes. Small interfering RNAs directed against ATF4 potently reduced basal F7 expression, and prevented F7 upregulation by glucose deprivation. The response of the endogenous F7 gene was replicated in reporter gene assays, which further indicated that ATF4 effects were mediated via interaction with an amino acid response element in the F7 promoter. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicated that glucose deprivation enhanced F7 expression in a mechanism reliant on prior ATF4 upregulation primarily due to increased transcription from the ATF4 gene. Of five coagulation protein genes examined, only F7 was upregulated, suggesting that its functions may be important in a systemic response to glucose deprivation stress.
Hypoxia increases the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells via upregulation of CXCR4
Patricia A Cronin, Jiang H Wang, H Paul Redmond
BMC Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-225
Abstract: Three breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and 4T1 were subjected to 48 hrs of hypoxia or normoxia. Cell surface receptor expression was evaluated using flow cytometry. An extracellular matrix invasion assay and microporous migration assay was used to assess chemotactic response and metastatic ability.CXCR4 surface expression was significantly increased in the two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, following exposure to hypoxia. This upregulation of CXCR4 cell surface expression corresponded to a significant increase in migration and invasion in response to SDF1-α in vitro. The increase in metastatic potential of both the normoxic and the hypoxic treated breast cancer cell lines was attenuated by neutralization of CXCR4 with a CXCR4 neutralizing mAb, MAB172 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, showing the relationship between CXCR4 overexpression and increased chemotactic responsiveness.CXCR4 expression can be modulated by the tissue microenvironment such as hypoxia. Upregulation of CXCR4 is associated with increased migratory and invasive potential and this effect can be abrogated by CXCR4 inhibition. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a potential therapeutic target in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, characterized by a distinct pattern of metastasis involving regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. About 1 million cases of breast cancer are detected each year in the world [1]. Although early stage breast cancers are not life threatening, development of metastatic breast cancer is responsible for the majority of cancer-related death. Metastasis is the result of several sequential steps and represents a highly organized, non-random and organ-selective process [2]. A wide number of molecules such as cytokines, chemokines and their receptors, and growth factors have been implicated to be responsible for the metastatic property of breast cancer cells [3-9]. However, the precise cellular
Modified mini-open technique with skin transillumination for decompression fasciotomy in the treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome
J. J Cronin,A. Zubovic,J. Last,R. Moran
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s10195-007-175-8
Abstract: Fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome can be achieved by a variety of methods, many of which involve the blind passage of scissors or a fasciotome to release the affected compartments. We describe a modified open technique of fasciotomy which provides direct visualization of the fascia and the superficial peroneal nerve, using a single small incision. This technique requires a 4-cm longitudinal incision centered at the midpoint of the fibula. Subcutaneous tissues are dissected and a fascial incision is made. Langenbach retractors are used to lift the skin from either end of the wound. A light is used to transilluminate the skin proximal and then distal to the wound, and a fasciotome is used to extend the fasciotomies for both anterior and lateral compartments. Fasciotomy using this method was carried out on 20 cadaveric legs from 10 specimens. After decompression, a fulllength skin incision was made and the subcutaneous tissues were dissected to assess adequacy of release, anatomic course of the superficial peroneal nerve and complications. Fasciotomy was completed in twenty legs for both the anterior and lateral compartments. A complete fascial release was attained for both compartments in all legs. There were no retained fascial bands or nerve injuries. Fasciotomy using this method may be a safe and reliable method for compartment decompression, and may reduce iatrogenic risk to neurovascular and muscular structures in clinical practice.
The frequency of antlerless female caribou and reindeer in Alaska
Matthew A. Cronin,Shawn P. Haskell,Warren B. Ballard
Rangifer , 2003,
Abstract: The presence or absence of antlers in female caribou and reindeer may reflect genetic or nutritional effects. We classified antler status of female caribou of the Alaska Central Arctic Herd in 1994, 1995, and 2002, and female reindeer in two captive Alaskan herds in 1994. Of 3091 female caribou classified during three years, 152 (4.9%) were antlerless. Frequency of antlerless females in the Central Arctic Herd was similar to that of other Alaskan caribou herds. There were no antlerless females among 231 classified captive reindeer. We compared the frequency of antlerless females in the Alaskan herds with other herds, and possible nutritional and genetic influences on female antler status are discussed.
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