Abstract:
Some new values and trends based on strengthened needs for nature, culture and safety have emerged and offer favourable opportunities for the less developed rural areas. The environmental and social aspects of economies are getting to have more power as well as the information society provides assets to break off the distances and these processes lead to change the term of underdevelopment especially in rural peripheries. While the rural spaces have resources necessary to start a new way of development, they are in a dual cultural snare. On one hand, rural policy forces to follow one kind of modernization, most of the rural areas do not have resources for that. On the other hand, local societies are not ready to follow a post-modern way. Post-modern values are imported by migrants and this is accompanied by important conflicts. The main question of our research is how the pure nature, the sustainability, the cultural heritage and social participation as some of the basic values for post-modern type development are present in rural spaces. According to our hypothesis the relation of local society to post-modern values depends on economic development, the size of community and their links to the outside of the region. We have started an empirical research project in 8 groups of villages (6 in Hungary, 2 in Transylvania) in order to verify the hypothesis. About 420 local residents have been asked about their values and preferences. The paper shows some of the results of these surveys.

Abstract:
Trigonometric height determination employing total stations has found its wider application. With a construction improvementof total stations the crucial source of systematic errors has become environment where the specific measurement is realized. Variedoptical environments properties by changes of meteorological factors effect vertical refraction which can be regarded as a variablesystematic error.In submitted article the attention is given to an existence of systematic influences by means of ANOVA tool. Subsequently,the dependence between systematic errors and changes of meteorological factors is given on the ground of correlation analysis.

Abstract:
The contribution deals with surveying works needed for rebuilding project of O. Nepela ice rink in Bratislava. An essential partis review of the existing documentation with actual parameters of the selected elements of ice rink construction, which will serveas a base for the reconstruction project. The most important part of surveying measurement is to establish a control network, fromwhich follows measurement of the detailed points of selected elements. Next section of paper deals with a choice of a suitable typeof control network and its optimization in terms of availability and required accuracy. Finally, the contribution deals withthe measurement of the spatial elements and with a 3D model creation of the main supporting pillars, entries, stands, stairs and icehockey ground.

Abstract:
A closed word (a.k.a. periodic-like word or complete first return) is a word whose longest border does not have internal occurrences, or, equivalently, whose longest repeated prefix is not right special. We investigate the structure of closed factors of words. We show that a word of length $n$ contains at least $n+1$ distinct closed factors, and characterize those words having exactly $n+1$ closed factors. Furthermore, we show that a word of length $n$ can contain $\Theta(n^{2})$ many distinct closed factors.

Abstract:
The paper deals with the investigation of accuracy of a volume estimationbased on the digital elevation model generated from the sets of points with differentdensities. Investigation of the influence of the point density is provided on the basis ofthe theoretical bodies, which surface is expressed using a known mathematicalfunction of the planar coordinates, and on the experimental measurements usingterrestrial laser scanning and GNSS-RTK method. The results achieved suggest thatthe density of points significantly affects the accuracy of a volume determination.

Abstract:
The growth dynamics of Geotrichum candidum was studied on the surface of the skim milk agar with respect to the temperature, pH and water activity/NaCl content. At pH ranging from 5.0 to 7.0, the fungus growth rates were similar, whereas the temperature and water activity represented by salt addition in concentration of 3 % influenced the growth significantly. The effect of incubation temperature on the surface growth rate was modelled with G-Twmodel. Designed model proved to be good predictor of fungus growth at used environmental conditions. As the filamentous fungus under study is commonly present on the surface of various cheeses, the quantitative data found in this work can provide useful information closely related to real fungus growth, e.g. calculation of time required for G. candidum to reach visible 3 mm colony. The predictions showed that, for example at 0 % NaCl content, such colonies were grown for 52.2, 30.7, 18.4, 14.4, 13.9 hat temperatures of 10, 14, 19, 23, 27 °C, respectively. doi:10.5219/109

Abstract:
The Parikh vector p(s) of a string s is defined as the vector of multiplicities of the characters. Parikh vector q occurs in s if s has a substring t with p(t)=q. We present two novel algorithms for searching for a query q in a text s. One solves the decision problem over a binary text in constant time, using a linear size index of the text. The second algorithm, for a general finite alphabet, finds all occurrences of a given Parikh vector q and has sub-linear expected time complexity; we present two variants, which both use a linear size index of the text.

Abstract:
The Binary Jumbled String Matching problem is defined as: Given a string $s$ over $\{a,b\}$ of length $n$ and a query $(x,y)$, with $x,y$ non-negative integers, decide whether $s$ has a substring $t$ with exactly $x$ $a$'s and $y$ $b$'s. Previous solutions created an index of size O(n) in a pre-processing step, which was then used to answer queries in constant time. The fastest algorithms for construction of this index have running time $O(n^2/\log n)$ [Burcsi et al., FUN 2010; Moosa and Rahman, IPL 2010], or $O(n^2/\log^2 n)$ in the word-RAM model [Moosa and Rahman, JDA 2012]. We propose an index constructed directly from the run-length encoding of $s$. The construction time of our index is $O(n+\rho^2\log \rho)$, where O(n) is the time for computing the run-length encoding of $s$ and $\rho$ is the length of this encoding---this is no worse than previous solutions if $\rho = O(n/\log n)$ and better if $\rho = o(n/\log n)$. Our index $L$ can be queried in $O(\log \rho)$ time. While $|L|= O(\min(n, \rho^{2}))$ in the worst case, preliminary investigations have indicated that $|L|$ may often be close to $\rho$. Furthermore, the algorithm for constructing the index is conceptually simple and easy to implement. In an attempt to shed light on the structure and size of our index, we characterize it in terms of the prefix normal forms of $s$ introduced in [Fici and Lipt\'ak, DLT 2011].

Abstract:
Hungary’s history was as troubled as Eric Hobsbawm stated Europe’s past in Age of Extremes. The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991. Dictatorships followed each another right from the end of WWI until the system change in 1989, but among all the authoritarian regimes socialism existed longest. After the thawing atmosphere of the second half in the 1960s, critical tone was articulated in the Neo-Avant-Garde’s “second public sphere”. A form of criticism against any kind of hierar- chical repression arose from performative and intermedial artworks and still didn’t disappear even in postmodern times long after the fall of the wall. The paper will focus on three-dimension of hierarchical bondage: being chained through the other, trough the authorities and through history. All artists’ works (that of El Kazovszkij, Tamás St. Auby and Little Warsaw) are meant to show inner relations between the body, its representation, authoritarian practice of control respectively performance and intermedia art.