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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 308 matches for " Kashif Shafique "
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Socio-Economic Inequalities in Survival of Patients with Prostate Cancer: Role of Age and Gleason Grade at Diagnosis
Kashif Shafique, David S. Morrison
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056184
Abstract: In the United Kingdom, survival of prostate cancer patients has improved since the 1990s. A deprivation gap in survival (better survival for the least deprived compared with the most deprived) has been reported but it is not known if differential distribution of earlier age or lower grade disease at diagnosis might explain such patterns. We therefore investigated the impact of age and Gleason grade at diagnosis on the deprivation gap in survival of prostate cancer patients over time. Incident cases of prostate cancer (ICD-10 C61) from the West of Scotland were extracted from the Scottish Cancer Registry from 1991 to 2007. Socio-economic circumstances were measured using the Scottish Index for Multiple Deprivation 2004 (SIMD). Age and deprivation specific mortality rates were obtained from the General Registrar Office for Scotland (GRO(S)). The survival gradient across the five deprivation categories was estimated with linear regression, weighted by the variance of the relative survival estimate. We examined the data for 15,292 adults diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1991 and 2007. Despite substantial improvements in survival of prostate cancer patients, a deprivation gap persists throughout the three periods of diagnoses. The deprivation gap in five year relative survival widened from ?4.76 in 1991–1996 to ?10.08 in 2003–2007. On age and grade-specific analyses, a significant deprivation gap in five year survival existed between all age groups except among patients' age ≥75 and both low and high grade disease. On multivariate analyses, deprivation was significantly associated with increased excess risk of death (RER 1.48, 95% CI 1.31–1.68, p-value<0.001) independent of age, Gleason grade and period of diagnosis. The deprivation gap in survival from prostate cancer cannot be wholly explained by socio-economic differentials in early detection of disease. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities or treatment explain inequalities in prostate cancer outcomes.
Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study
Saira S Mirza, Kashif Shafique, Priya Vart, Moin I Arain
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-6-23
Abstract: This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers). Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome.We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314) were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242) were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295) were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40) while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users.Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut users with tobacco additives were also significantly more likely to suffer from the dependence.Areca nut is the seed of the fruit of the tropical palm tree, Areca Catechu. This tree bears fruit throughout the year and areca nut is obtained from it, which is a basic ingredient of widely used chewing products[1]. Thin slices of nuts either natural or processed are then mixed with a variety of substances including slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) and spices such as carda-mom, coconut, and saffron [2,3]. Most importantly these nuts are also mixed with some tobacco products.The areca nut is considered to be the fourth most commonly used psy
Flood Frequency Analysis of Chenab River for Predicting Peak Flows during Late Monsoon Period  [PDF]
Muhammad Atif Butt, Atif Ali, Sonia Ijaz, Rashid Mehmood, Syed Amer Mahmood, Ghulam Jafer, Kashif Shafique, Asadullah Khan Ghalib, Rizwan Waheed, Ali Iqtadar Mirza
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2019.81001
Abstract:

The River Chenab is one of the main western rivers of the Indus River system in Pakistan, which undergoes intensive inundation almost every year during the late monsoon period. The present study performs flood frequency analyses for the river basin as well as simulates different levels of water flow in the system to speculate all kinds of inundation under different scenarios, i.e., to predict flood hazard and flood extended areas. Flood frequency analyses were performed at MARALA Headworks to Khanki Headworks. Data were collected from the Punjab Irrigation Department, Pakistan and from USGS and ASTER GDEM. The peak discharge of MARALA Headworks had been analyzed for 25 years. The preprocessing was performed in HEC Geo-RAS after preprocessing model run in HEC-RAS. After analysis the data were exported in HEC-RAS to ARCMAP to generate a floodplain and inundation map. Our analysis generated the result that different areas would be under water in different return periods. Flood hazards maps for different return periods 10, 20, 50 and 100 years were conducted using annual peaks flow of 35 years from 1980 to 2016. The maximum discharges at up and down stream for different periods were obtained using Gumbel distribution model results which showed that different areas

Water-Pipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study
Kashif Shafique, Saira Saeed Mirza, Muhammad Kashif Mughal, Zain Islam Arain, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Farooq Tareen, Ishtiaque Ahmad
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039734
Abstract: Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact on chronic health conditions particularly cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between WP smoking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Punjab province of Pakistan using the baseline data of a population-based study – Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). Information was collected by trained nurses regarding the socio-demographic profile, lifestyle factors including WP smoking, current and past illnesses. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of complete blood count, lipid profile and fasting glucose level. MetS was ascertained by using the International Diabetic Federation’s criteria. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between WP smoking and MetS. Final sample included 2,032 individuals – of those 325 (16.0%) were current WP smokers. Age adjusted-prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among current WP smokers (33.1%) compared with non-smokers (14.8%). Water-pipe smokers were three times more likely to have MetS (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.38–4.33) compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, sex and social class. WP smokers were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25–2.10), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.37–2.41), Hypertension (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.51–2.51) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52–2.45). However, there were no significant differences in HDL level between WP smokers and non-smokers. This study suggests that WP smoking has a significant positive (harmful) relationship with MetS and its components.
Hepatitis B and C prevalence among the high risk groups of Pakistani population. A cross sectional study
Abdul Rauf Memon, Kashif Shafique, Ashraf Memon, Agha Umer Draz, Mohammad Uzair Abdul Rauf, Salahuddin Afsar
Archives of Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/0778-7367-70-9
Abstract: This cross sectional study was carried out in Karachi, from January 2007 to June 2008.HBsAg and Anti HCV screening was carried out in blood samples collected from four vulnerable or at risk groups which included injecting drug users (IDUs), prisoners, security personnel and health care workers (HCWs). Demographic information was recorded and the possible mode of acquisition was assessed by detailed interview. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using the STATA software.We screened 4202 subjects, of these, 681 individuals were reactive either with hepatitis B or C. One hundred and thirty three (3.17%) were hepatitis B reactive and 548 (13.0%) were diagnosed with hepatitis C. After adjusting for age, security personnel, prisoners and IV drug users were 5, 3 and 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B reactive respectively as compared to the health care workers. IDUs were 46 times more likely to be hepatitis C positive compared with health care workers.The prevalence of hepatitis B and C was considerably higher in IDUs, prisoners and security personnel compared to HCWs group. Hepatitis C is more prevalent than hepatitis B in all these risk groups. Prevalence of hepatitis C increased with the increase in age. Use of unsterilized syringes, used syringes, body piercing and illicit sexual relations were found to be important associated risk factors for higher prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in these groups.
Cholesterol and the risk of grade-specific prostate cancer incidence: evidence from two large prospective cohort studies with up to 37 years' follow up
Kashif Shafique, Philip McLoone, Khaver Qureshi, Hing Leung, Carole Hart, David S Morrison
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-25
Abstract: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 12,926 men who were enrolled in the Midspan studies between 1970 and 1976 and followed up to 31st December 2007. We used Cox-Proportional Hazards Models to evaluate the association between baseline plasma cholesterol and Gleason grade-specific prostate cancer incidence. We excluded cancers detected within at least 5 years of cholesterol assay.650 men developed prostate cancer in up to 37 years' follow-up. Baseline plasma cholesterol was positively associated with hazard of high grade (Gleason score≥8) prostate cancer incidence (n = 119). The association was greatest among men in the 2nd highest quintile for cholesterol, 6.1 to < 6.69 mmol/l, Hazard Ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.10, compared with the baseline of < 5.05 mmol/l. This association remained significant after adjustment for body mass index, smoking and socioeconomic status.Men with higher cholesterol are at greater risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer but not overall risk of prostate cancer. Interventions to minimise metabolic risk factors may have a role in reducing incidence of aggressive prostate cancer.The incidence of prostate cancer has increased over several decades such that it is now the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in Europe and the USA [1,2]. There is evidence that increasing age, genetic predisposition [3,4] and ethnicity [5] are risk factors for prostate cancer while opportunistic testing may partly explain temporal increases and international variations in incidence [1]. Prostate cancer is about six times more common in more developed compared to less developed countries, suggesting that modifiable Western lifestyle factors may have a causal role [6]. It has been observed for about a century that the levels of cholesterol, fatty deposits, lecithin and some other lipids in the diseased prostate are elevated [7]. Several studies have explored the relationship between serum cholesterol levels and the incidence of prostate cancer and
Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a measure of systemic inflammation in prevalent chronic diseases in Asian population
Fauzia Imtiaz, Kashif Shafique, Saira Mirza, Zeenat Ayoob, Priya Vart, Saadiyah Rao
International Archives of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-5-2
Abstract: Present study is a cross sectional study conducted on population of Karachi, Pakistan. A detailed questionnaire about the demographic details of all subjects was filled and an informed consent obtained for blood sampling. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the relationship between NLR and prevalent chronic conditions.1070 apparently healthy individuals participated in the study. Proportion of individuals with hypertension was higher in middle and highest tertile of NLR as compared to the lowest tertile (18.2% & 16.1% compared to 11.8%). Individuals with hypertension were 43% (RRR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.94-2.20) and 66% (RRR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.09-2.54) more likely to be in the middle and highest tertile of NLR respectively compared to the baseline group. Similarly, individuals with diabetes mellitus were 53% (RRR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.93-2.51) and 65% (RRR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.01-2.71) more likely to be in the middle or highest tertile of NLR as compared to the baseline NLR group.Systemic inflammation measured by NLR has a significant association with prevalent chronic conditions. Future research is needed to investigate this relationship with longitudinal data to establish the temporal association between these variables.Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The global burden of these diseases has sharply increased in last two decades and continues to augment due to the growth in aging population and health risk behaviours [1,2]. Preliminary evidence has suggested the role of inflammation in development and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases as well as cancers [3-7].Several studies have explored the relationship between systemic inflammation and cardiovascular mortality [3,5]. Elevated levels of systemic inflammatory markers have been found associated with incidence of cardiovascular diseases [3,5]. Furthermore, many epidemiological studies have highlighted that chronic low grade inflammat
Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: further evidence for inverse relationship
Kashif Shafique, Philip McLoone, Khaver Qureshi, Hing Leung, Carole Hart, David Morrison
Nutrition Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-42
Abstract: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6017 men who were enrolled in the Collaborative cohort study in the UK between 1970 and 1973 and followed up to 31st December 2007. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and overall, as well as Gleason grade-specific, PC incidence.Higher coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of high grade but not with overall risk of PC. Men consuming 3 or more cups of coffee per day experienced 55% lower risk of high Gleason grade disease compared with non-coffee drinkers in analysis adjusted for age and social class (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.90, p value for trend 0.01). This association changed a little after additional adjustment for Body Mass Index, smoking, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, tea intake and alcohol consumption.Coffee consumption reduces the risk of aggressive PC but not the overall risk.
Ubiquitous Service Discovery in Pervasive Computing Environment
Chaudhary Sajjad Hussain,Chaudhary Shafique Ahmed,Ali Hammad Akbar,Ali Kashif Bashir
Information Technology Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Service discovery problems have recently become sizzling subject for researchers with the advancement in ubiquitous computing. Service discovery will be an imperative attribute for future ubiquitous computing networks and autonomous Ad hoc networks. With service discovery, devices may involuntarily ascertain network services including their properties and services may advertise their continuation in a dynamic way. Several service discovery protocols have been proposed such as SLP, Jini, UPnP and Bluetooth`s SDP runners in this area. In this study we described the service discovery and controlling of services with Ubiquitous Remote Manager, which controls the home gateways from end to end remotely and self managed so that the complexity of the system can be reduced and more control can be achieved over the network in ubiquitous computing environment. Ubiquitous Service Discovery will be very important feature in future smart home networks. The purpose of Ubiquitous Service Discovery will be to find the appropriate service according to the user preference and wish in wide are ubiquitous environment.
Towards a Remote Sensing and GIS-Based Technique to Study Population and Urban Growth: A Case Study of Multan  [PDF]
Atif Ali, Anam Khalid, Muhammad Atif Butt, Rashid Mehmood, Syed Amer Mahmood, Javed Sami, Jahanzeb Qureshi, Kashif Shafique, Asdullah Khan Ghalib, Rizwan Waheed, Farhan Ali, Rais Mukhtar, Muhammad Azhar
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2018.73017
Abstract:
In recent decades, the migration rates of the large cities of Punjab have been risen up to a considerable level due to the lack of employment opportunities as well as lack of facilities in the rural areas of the province. It has caused an unprecedented and unplanned urbanization across the urban areas of the province. This study has been undertaken to perform fractal analysis about the sprawl in rapidly growing city. GIS and remote sensing data have been used in this study as an emerging technology which is cost effective as well as accurate at the same time. Landsat images have been taken for the study and the sprawl has been calculated with the analysis of the data of each decade for past more than 40 years. It has been observed that the built up area is 47.8 to 141.12 Sq. Km whereas the pattern of urban settlement has been classified as clustered and linear, following the roads network. The temporal population growth also seconded these results. The population growth rate and population density increase, are based on the pixel based extraction of the data from satellite imagery for the period of 2000 to 2014, which is taken as a decision support tool. In 2000, the population of the district increased from 2,071,694 (1981 census) to 2,939,907 and then in 2013, it became 4,384,191 at a rate to 2.93% upturn per annum. Moreover, the study also reveals the extent of the growth of other land uses as well which may be taken as a reference that in an agricultural country like Pakistan, the natural resources are being wasted (by urbanization of the fertile land). There must be some master planning to avoid such things in the other cities as well.
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