Abstract:
We study the phase diagram of the one dimensional (1D) $U-V$ model at quarter filling in the most general case where the on-site and first-neighbour interactions $U$ and $V$ can be both attractive and repulsive. The results have been obtained using exact diagonalization of small clusters and variational techniques, as well as exact results in various limits. We have analyzed four properties of the groundstate: i)~whether it is insulating or metallic; \hbox{ii)~whether} it is homogenous or phase separated; iii)~whether it has a spin gap; iv)~whether it has dominant superconducting fluctuations. With eight phases, the resulting phase diagram is unexpectedly rich. The four phases not found in the weak coupling limit are: i) an insulating phase when $U$ and $V$ are large enough; ii) a region of phase separation when $V$ is attractive; iii) another region of phase separation when $V$ is large enough and $U$ small; iv) a region with dominant superconducting fluctuations when $V$ is intermediate and $U$ small. The actual nature of this last phase, which has pairs but no spin gap, is not fully clear yet.

Abstract:
We show that the zero temperature susceptibility of the one-dimensional, dimerized Hubbard model at quarter-filling can be accurately determined on the basis of exact diagonalization of small clusters. The best procedure is to perform a finite-size scaling of the spin velocity $u_\sigma$, and to calculate the susceptibility from the Luttinger liquid relation $\chi=2/\pi u_\sigma$. We show that these results are reliable by comparing them with the analytical results that can be obtained in the weak and strong coupling limits. We have also used quantum Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the temperature dependence of the susceptibility for parameters that should be relevant to the Bechgaard salts. This shows that, used together, these numerical techniques are able to give precise estimates of the low temperature susceptibility of realistic one-dimensional models of correlated electrons.

Abstract:
Inspired by the recent experiments on Y$_{2-x}$Ca$_x$BaNiO$_5$, (J. F. DiTusa {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1857 (1994)), we discuss the dispersion relation of the $s$=1/2 particles in the $s$=1 Heisenberg and VBS model in the limit of small hopping amplitudes. The effective $s$=1/2 edge spins mix with the spin of the impurity resulting in one four--fold and two two--fold degenarate bands. We briefly discuss the interaction between the $s$=1/2 particles arising from the background.

Abstract:
The dynamical density-density correlation function is calculated for the one-dimensional, half-filled Hubbard model extended with nearest neighbor repulsion using the Lanczos algorithm for finite size systems and analytically for large on site repulsion compared to hopping amplitudes. At the zone boundary an excitonic feature exists for any finite nearest neighbor repulsion and exhausts most of the spectral weight, even for parameters where no exciton is visible at zero momentum.

Abstract:
The interpretation of the k dependent spectral functions of the one-dimensional, infinite U Hubbard model obtained by using the factorized wave-function of Ogata and Shiba is revisited. The well defined feature which appears in addition to low energy features typical of Luttinger liquids, and which, close to the Fermi energy, can be interpreted as the shadow band resulting from $2k_F$ spin fluctuations, is further investigated. A calculation of the self-energy shows that, not too close to the Fermi energy, this feature corresponds to a band, i.e. to a solution of the Dyson equation $\omega - \epsilon(k) - Re \Sigma (k,\omega) =0$.

Abstract:
The exact and analytical low energy spectrum of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model on a complete graph extended with on-site repulsion $U$ is obtained in terms of a dynamical spl(2,1) supersymmetry in the limit of infinitely strong Hund's coupling (double exchange). Furthermore, we show that for the particular value of $U=J_H/2$ the supersymmetry is not constrained to infinite $J_H/t$ only and we calculate the energy including the $t^2/J_H$ corrections analytically and we give numerical evidence which suggest that the Kondo Hamiltonian is itself supersymmetric for any $J_H/t$. On a $N$ site graph, the ferromagnetic ground state is realized for 1 and $N$+1 electrons only. In the leading order in the value of the core spin, the quantum and semiclassical spectra are identical.

Abstract:
The single-particle spectral function and the density response of a two band Emery model for CuO chains is calculated for large on-site Cu repulsion U and large on-site energy difference \Delta. For U>>U-\Delta>>t the eigenfunctions are products of charge and spin parts, which allows analytical calculation of spectral functions in that limit. For other parameters numerical diagonalization is used. The low energy hole carriers are shown to be the one-dimensional analogs of the Zhang-Rice singlets. The validity of the one-band model is discussed. The results are relevant to the interpretation of photoemission and EELS experiments on SrCuO2 and Sr2CuO3 .

Abstract:
The low energy spectrum of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model on a N-site complete graph extended with on-site repulsion is obtained from the underlying spl(2,1) algebra properties in the strong coupling limit. The ferromagnetic ground state is realized for 1 and N+1 electrons only. We identify the large density of states to be responsible for the suppression of the ferromagnetic state and argue that a similar situation is encountered in the Kagome, pyrochlore, and other lattices with flat bands in their one-particle density of states.

Abstract:
The spectral functions of tJ and tJ_{XY} models in the limit of J/t-> 0 and at finite temperatures T>>t are calculated using the spin-charge factorized wave function. We find that the Luttinger-liquid like scaling behavior for a finite system with L sites is restricted below temperatures of the order T = J/L. We also observe weight redistribution in the photoemission spectral function in the energy range t, which is much larger than the temperature.

Abstract:
The SU(4) Heisenberg model can serve as a low energy model of the Mott insulating state in materials where the spins and orbitals are highly symmetric, or in systems of alkaline-earth atoms on optical lattice. Recently, it has been argued that on the honeycomb lattice the model exhibits a unique spin-orbital liquid phase with an algebraic decay of correlations [P. Corboz et al., Phys. Rev. X 2, 041013 (2012)]. Here we study the instability of the algebraic spin-orbital liquid toward spontaneous formation of SU(4) singlet plaquettes (tetramerization). Using a variational Monte Carlo approach to evaluate the projected wave-function of fermions with $\pi$-flux state, we find that the algebraic liquid is robust, and that a finite value of the next nearest exchange is needed to induce tetramerization. We also studied the phase diagram of a model which interpolates between the nearest neighbor Heisenberg model and a Hamiltonian for which the singlet-plaquette product state is an exact ground state.