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Anti-diabetic activity of Celosia argentea root in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Ghule Santosh,Prakash T,Kotresha D,Karki Roopa
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic hypoglycaemic properties of an ethanolic extract of the root of Celosia argentea which is widely used in India as a traditional treatment for diabetes mellitus. An ethanolic extract of C. argentea root was found to lower blood glucose in basal conditions and after a heavy glucose load in normal rats. Maximum reduction in serum glucose was observed after 90 minutes at a dose of 500 mg/kg (63.28%) of body weight, but petroleum ether and chloroform extracts (8.52% and 9.81%, respectively) did not reduce the serum glucose. Ethanolic extract of C. argentea was also found to reduce the increase of blood sugar found in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (73.43% at 250 mg/kg and 80.20% at 500 mg/kg body weight on 15th day). Chronic administration of the extract significantly reduced the blood sugar in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for several days (15 days). The ethanolic extract was also found to reduce the increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and urea. The extract also restored the decreased level of proteins and liver glycogen in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals and inhibited the body weight reduction induced by streptozotocin administration. These results indicate that C. argentea root extracts are able to ameliorate biochemical damages induced by streptozotocin in diabetic rats.
Formulation and evaluation of melt-in-mouth tablets of haloperidol
Jha Sajal,Vijayalakshmi P,Karki Roopa,Goli Divakar
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2008,
Abstract: Haloperidol, a butyrophenone, is widely used neuroleptic. Though haloperidol is well absorbed after oral dosing, there is a first pass metabolism leading to a reduced bioavailability of the drug (60-70%). Therefore, the present investigation is concerned with the development of melt-in-mouth tablets of haloperidol. Various formulations were prepared incorporating a combination of superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate, and crospovidone by direct compression method. The formulated melt-in-mouth tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters, disintegration time and for in vitro drug release. All the formulations had disintegration time less than 30 s and release maximum amount of drug by 12 min. Formulation containing higher concentration of crospovidone decreases disintegration time and optimize the drug release. The most satisfactory formulation was found to be stable during the stability studies conducted as per ICH guidelines QIC, as it showed no significant changes ( P < 0.05) in the physicochemical properties, disintegration time and in vitro drug release.
Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics Evaluation of Ranitidine Microemulsion on Experimental Animals
Sajal Kumar Jha,Roopa Karki,Venkatesh Dinnekere Puttegowda,Amitava Ghosh
Advances in Pharmaceutics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/304392
Abstract: Ranitidine microemulsion was investigated for its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic evaluation to find out the suitability of microemulsion as a potential drug delivery system in the treatment of ulcer. The bioavailability of ranitidine after oral administration is about 50% and is absorbed via the small intestine; this may be due to low intestinal permeability. Hence the aim of present investigation was to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of ranitidine by developing microemulsion to increase the intestinal permeability as well as bioavailability. A ground nut oil based microemulsion formulation with Tween-80 as surfactant and PEG-400 as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of ranitidine and characterized for physicochemical parameters. In pharmacodynamic studies, significant () variation in parameters estimated was found between the treated and control groups. Ranitidine microemulsion exhibited higher absorption and Cmax (863.20?ng·h/mL) than the standard (442.20?ng/mL). It was found that AUC0–24?hr obtained from the optimized ranitidine test formulation (5426.5?ng·h/mL) was significantly higher than the standard ranitidine (3920.4?ng·h/mL). The bioavailability of optimized formulation was about 1.4-fold higher than that of standard drug. This enhanced bioavailability of ranitidine microemulsion may be used as an effective and alternative drug delivery system for the antiulcer therapy. 1. Introduction Gastric ulcer is said to occur due to an imbalance between luminal acid synthesis and mucosal defense. Acid and pepsin components constitute the aggressive factors, and the mucous layer of mucin-bicarbonate secretion, prostaglandins, and other healing factors constitute the defensive factors [1]. The mucosal defense against these aggressive factors includes the function of the mucus-bicarbonate barrier, surface active phospholipids, prostaglandin, mucosal blood flow, cell renewal and migration, antioxidative enzymes, and some growth factors. Even though wide range of drugs available for the treatment of ulcer may do not fulfill the requirements and have many side effects such as arrhythmias, impotence and hemopoietic changes are noted. H2 antagonists, unlike anticholinergics, do not delay gastric emptying time which may reflexly stimulate gastric secretion because of food remaining in the stomach for long time. Also it does not cause abdominal colic and diarrhoea caused by proton pump inhibitors. In recent years large advance in chemical and pharmacological studies has contributed to the knowledge about new therapeutically active compounds and
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A METRONIDAZOLE CENTRAL CORE MATRIX TABLET
Upendra Nagaich,Vandana Chaudhary,S.D.Tonpay,Roopa Karki
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, a study of different concentration of HPMC K 15 M exerts influenceon the drug release process from a new controlled drug delivery system has been realizedin order to obtain a constant release rate during a prolonged period of time, for aprogrammed drug release. The drug release profiles obtained for the different batcheshave shown an interesting relationship between the particle size of the channeling agentused and the length of different operational periods.
Stem cell therapy - Hype or hope? A review
Nadig Roopa
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: While the regeneration of a lost tissue is known to mankind for several years, it is only in the recent past that research on regenerative medicine/dentistry has gained momentum and eluded the dramatic yet scientific advancements in the field of molecular biology. The growing understanding of biological concepts in the regeneration of oral/dental tissues coupled with experiments on stem cells is likely to result in a paradigm shift in the therapeutic armamentarium of dental and oral diseases culminating in an intense search for "biological solutions to biological problems." Stem cells have been successfully isolated from variety of human tissues including orofacial tissues. Initial evidence from pioneering studies has documented the likely breakthrough that stem cells offer for various life-threatening diseases that have so far defeated modern medical care. The evidence gathered so far has propelled many elegant studies exploring the role of stem cells and their manifold dental applications. This review takes you on a sojourn of the origin of stem cells, their properties, characteristics, current research, and their potential applications. It also focuses on the various challenges and barriers that we have to surmount before translating laboratory results to successful clinical applications heralding the dawn of regenerative dentistry.
Laboratory Outbreak investigation of Sudden Death Syndrome in Broiler Chicken in Kathmandu Valley Nepal 2009
Kedar Karki
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjpscience.2012.1.3
Abstract: The incidence of death of broiler birds above 40 days suddenly increased in the month of July-October 2009 in Kathmandu valley. Birds that were presented for post-mortem examination at the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Tripureswor, Kathmandu were usually found dead on their backs with wings out-stretched. Gross abnormalities recorded on post mortem examinations were: muscle oedema, pulmonary, renal and liver congestion, dark black to pale yellow streaked liver bile filled gall bladder and congestive splenomegaly, blood clot in atrium haemorrhage in duodenal muscle, whitish yellow pasty fluid in proventriculus gland, greenish coloration marked intact feed particles in gizzard and excessive mucous filled swollen intestine. Incidence rate was recorded between 1.5-2.5% of the flock. The mean mortality rate due to sudden death syndrome was 1.3-9.6%. Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. with CFU ranging from 56x10-4 to 62x105, to uncountable mold count, E. coli, Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were the usual organisms isolated from culture samples of liver, lung, spleen and proventriculus.
Clinical Epidemiological Investigation of Moldy Grain and Fodder Poisoning in Goat in Kathmandu Valley
Kedar Karki
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.789.790
Abstract: An outbreak of a syndrome of unknown etiology associated with the feeding of moldy maize grain and green fodder to goat in a herd of male 3853 goats for sale for the Dashahara festival during the month of October 2010 in Kathmandu valley. In a period of 10 days 500 goats suddenly became ill with symptoms of anorexia, apathy, diarrhea and ruminal stasis. On clinical examination these goats were provisionally diagnosed with sudden illness and moldy corn/fodder poisoning was suspected. They were treated with biolive, tetrachlor, polyte, C-lyte, stress care and antidegnala liquor but 250 goats died. Necrosis of the fore stomach mucosa was the most characteristic gross pathological change. Clinical pathological findings included mild focal erosions to severe, diffuse, coagulative necrosis of the mucosa in the rumen, reticulum, omasum, congestion and hemorrhages in the abomasum. Liver with shrunken appearance and pale to yellowish discoloration with bile filled distended bladder, pin point hemorrhage in kidney, intestine with excessive mucus. On mycological and microbiological examination of tissue samples from post-mortem of dead goat on respective medium revealed the growth of fungal pathogens like Penicillium sp. with Staphylococcus. These results provide circumstantial evidence that feeding on moldy maize grain and green fodder leaves infested with Penicillium may cause outbreaks of systemic mycosis in goats.
A Laboratory Epidemiological Outbreak Investigation of Kumri(Cerebrospinal nematodiasis)and use of diethylecarbamazin in treatment of Goat in Banke district of Mid-Western Region of Nepal
Kedar Karki
Veterinary World , 2008,
Abstract: Seasonal occurrence (mainly in October-November) of a disease syndrome locally called ‘Kumri’ meaning weak back was observed in goats in Banke and other districts of western Terai in the last few years. Traumatic injury to the lumbar region, nutritional deficiencies and parasitism in the spinal cord were the likely causes considered. Based on the epidemiological pattern viz; seasonal occurrence, clinical symptoms, afebrile condition and local nature of infection, and non response to supplementation of vitamins and minerals, the disease was provisionally diagnosed as cerebrospinal nematodiasis. This has been further substantiated through laboraotry of Seteria spp in cattle in this region, detection of microfilaria in affected goat and treatment response of affected goats with diethylcarbamazine. As adult seteria spp in cattle, Buffalo and microfileria from blood smears of affected goat confirmed the cerebrospinal nematodisease in goat in Nepal. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(6.000): 168-170]
Safeguarding our Future: Minimizing Litigations in Maternity Care
Chandra Karki
Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/njog.v7i1.8824
Abstract: Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology / Vol 7 / No. 1 / Issue 13 / Jan- June, 2012 / 1-4 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njog.v7i1.8824
Suicide : Leading Cause of Death among Women in Nepal
C Karki
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v9i3.6294
Abstract: No abstract available. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v9i3.6294 Kathmandu Univ Med J 2011;9(3):157-8 ?
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