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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3216 matches for " Karin Vadovi?ová "
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SWS promoting MHb-IPN-MRN circuit opposes the theta promoting circuit, active wake and REM sleep
Karin Vadoviová
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: The multisynaptic axonal tracts between hippocampus and medial habenula (MHb) observed in my DTI study using probabilistic tractography made me explore their connectivity. Found tract linked hippocampus to septum, and amygdala to bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST). Axons from septum and BNST passed by anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AM) to MHb, and from MHb to pineal gland, linked to control of circadian cycles and sleep. Combination of known findings about septum and MHb connectivity and function led to idea that posterior septum activates MHb, leading to activation of IPN, MRN and serotonin release. This MHb-IPN-MRN circuit promotes slow wave sleep (SWS), high serotonin and low acetylcholine state. This SWS promoting circuit reciprocally suppresses the theta oscillations promoting circuit, linked to high acetylcholine in brain, and formed by supramamillary area (SUM) projections to the medial septum (MS) that activates hippocampus or other theta-coupled regions. The MHb pathway inhibits, possibly reciprocally also some stimulating input to theta-generating SUM and MS, from wake-on nucleus incertus (NI), posterior hypothalamus (PH) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) neurons, and REM-on reticular nucleus pontis oralis (PnO). So the SWS- promoting circuit attenuates theta and both active wake state and REM sleep promoting regions. As the theta in wake state is linked to recording and binding information with their spatio-temporal and relational context by hippocampus, while the SWS supports replay of hippocampally stored information/memory trace and its cortical reactivation, e. g. in retrosplenial cortex linked to autobiographic memory or in prefrontal cortex that can combine any information.
Affective and cognitive prefrontal cortex projections to the lateral habenula in humans
Karin Vadoviová
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00819
Abstract: Anterior insula (AI) and dACC are known to process information about pain, loss, adversities, bad, harmful or suboptimal choices and consequences that threaten survival or well-being. Pain and loss activate also pregenual ACC (pgACC), linked to sad thoughts, hurt and regrets. The lateral habenula (LHb) is stimulated by predicted and received pain, discomfort, aversive outcome, loss. Its chronic stimulation makes us feel worse/low and gradually stops us choosing and moving for suboptimal, hurtful or punished choices, by direct and indirect (via RMTg) inhibition of DRN and VTA/SNc. Response selectivity of LHb neurons suggests their cortical input from affective and cognitive evaluative regions that make expectations about bad or suboptimal outcomes. Based on these facts I predicted direct corticohabenular projections from the dACC, pgACC and AI, as part of the adversity processing circuit that learns to avoid bad outcomes by suppressing dopamine and serotonin signal. Using DTI I found dACC, pgACC, AI, adjacent caudolateral and lateral OFC projections to LHb. I predicted no corticohabenular projections from the reward processing regions: medial OFC and vACC because both respond most strongly to good, high value stimuli and outcomes, inducing serotonin and dopamine release respectively. This lack of LHb projections was confirmed for vACC and likely for mOFC. The surprising findings were the corticohabenular projections from the cognitive prefrontal cortex regions, known for flexible reasoning, planning and combining whatever information are relevant for reaching current goals. I propose that prefrontohabenular projections provide a teaching signal for value-based choice behaviour, to learn to deselect, avoid or inhibit the potentially harmful, low valued or wrong choices, goals, strategies, predictions, models and ways of doing things, to prevent bad or suboptimal consequences.
Reward and adversity processing circuits, their competition and interactions with dopamine and serotonin signaling
Karin Vadoviová,Roberto Gasparotti
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-LIFE.AEKZPZ.v1
Abstract: We propose that dACC, AI and caudolateral OFC(clOFC) project to lateral habenula (LHb) and D2 loop of ventral striatum (VS), forming a functional adversity processing circuit, directed towards inhibitory avoidance and self-control. This circuit learns what is bad or harmful to us and predicts risks, to stop us from going/moving for bad or suboptimal choices that decrease our well-being and survival chances. Proposed dACC role is to generate a WARNING signal when things are going (or might end) bad or wrong to prevent negative consequences: pain, harm, loss or failure. The AI signals about bad low aversive qualities, which make us sick or cause discomfort. These cortical inputs activate directly and indirectly (via D2 loop of VS) the LHb, which inhibits dopamine and serotonin release (and is reciprocally inhibited by VTA, DRN) to avoid choosing and doing things leading to harm or loss, but also to make us feel worse, down when overstimulated. We propose that dopamine attenuates the output of the adversity processing circuit, thus decreasing inhibitory avoidance and self-control, while serotonin attenuates dACC, AI, clOFC, D1 loop of VS, LHb, amygdala and pain pathway. Thus, by reciprocal inhibition, by causing dopamine and serotonin suppression - and by being suppressed by them, the adversity processing circuit competes with reward processing circuit for control of choice behaviour and affective states. We propose stimulating effect of dopamine and calming inhibitory effect of serotonin on the active avoidance circuit involving amygdala, linked to threat processing, anger, fear, self-defense and violences. We describe causes and roles of dopamine and serotonin signaling, and mental dysfunctions. We add new idea on vACC role in signaling that we are doing well and in inducing serotonin, when we gain/reach safety, comfort, valuable resources, social/biological rewards, affection or goals.
Building Trust—One Gift at a Time
Maro? Servátka,Steven Tucker,Radovan Vadovi
Games , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/g2040412
Abstract: This paper reports an experiment evaluating the effect of gift giving on building trust. We have nested our explorations in the standard version of the investment game. Our gift treatment includes a dictator stage in which the trustee decides whether to give a gift to the trustor before both of them proceed to play the investment game. We observe that in such case the majority of trustees offer their endowment to trustors. Consequently, receiving a gift significantly increases the amounts sent by trustors when controlling for the differences in payoffs created by it. Trustees are, however, not better off by giving a gift as the increase in the amount sent by trustors is not large enough to offset the trustees’ loss associated with the cost of giving a gift.
Fatigue Strength of Laser Welded Joints of PP and PC Components  [PDF]
Vlastimil Votrubec, Pavel Hisem, Lenka Vin?ová, Gabriela Bene?ová
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2018.86017
Abstract: The paper describes research of fatigue properties of laser welded joints of PP and PC reinforced composites. Welded specimens were tested on dynamic testing machine to obtain data for fatigue strength and fatigue life evaluation. Materials used for testing were PP and PC plastics filled with various amounts of glass fibers. Nine combinations of PP specimens and 6 combinations of PC specimens were welded and loaded on testing machine by fluctuating stress with constant stress ratio. Presented results include fatigue strength of welded joints and also the S-N curves based on experimental data and theory are derived.
Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine
OV Salata
Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-2-3
Abstract: Nanotechnology [1] is enabling technology that deals with nano-meter sized objects. It is expected that nanotechnology will be developed at several levels: materials, devices and systems. The nanomaterials level is the most advanced at present, both in scientific knowledge and in commercial applications. A decade ago, nanoparticles were studied because of their size-dependent physical and chemical properties [2]. Now they have entered a commercial exploration period [3,4].Living organisms are built of cells that are typically 10 μm across. However, the cell parts are much smaller and are in the sub-micron size domain. Even smaller are the proteins with a typical size of just 5 nm, which is comparable with the dimensions of smallest manmade nanoparticles. This simple size comparison gives an idea of using nanoparticles as very small probes that would allow us to spy at the cellular machinery without introducing too much interference [5]. Understanding of biological processes on the nanoscale level is a strong driving force behind development of nanotechnology [6].Out of plethora of size-dependant physical properties available to someone who is interested in the practical side of nanomaterials, optical [7] and magnetic [8] effects are the most used for biological applications.The aim of this review is firstly to give reader a historic prospective of nanomaterial application to biology and medicine, secondly to try to overview the most recent developments in this field, and finally to discuss the hard road to commercialisation. Hybrid bionanomaterials can also be applied to build novel electronic, optoelectronics and memory devices (see for example [9,10]). Nevertheless, this will not be discussed here and will be a subject of a separate article.A list of some of the applications of nanomaterials to biology or medicine is given below:- Fluorescent biological labels [11-13]- Drug and gene delivery [14,15]- Bio detection of pathogens [16]- Detection of proteins [17]- Pro
Nanotechnology in Therapeutics: hydrogels and beyond
OV Salata
Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-5-5
Abstract: The very first chapter of this section overviews the "concepts of medical chronobiology, chronopharmacology and chronotherapeutics" as the basis for applications of drug delivery technology" and is dealing with the drug delivery matching to the biological rhythms. Can a doctor who takes decisions on the drug dosage by monitoring patient's progress be replaced by an automated system (see Chapter 2, dedicated to the "Feedback Control in Drug delivery")? Four diseases are analysed in this context and only in the simplest single input case of glucose control in diabetes a feedback control seems to be feasible at present. One of the major non-technical hurdles in this field is the acceptance of the technology by both clinicians and patients.The advances in drug delivery for nanoparticles are discussed in the third chapter of this thrilling volume. The main reason for creating nanoparticles is to improve solubility and bioavailability of drugs. It is a well known phenomenon that nanoparticles can be taken much faster across the cell membranes. There are also opportunities here to create a targeted drug delivery. Routes of nanoparticle preparation are described, followed by the discussion of the requirements to their physical and chemical properties for effective delivery.Molecular recognition is one of the central concepts in biology and is of great importance for the creation of active synthetic nanomaterials. In the Chapter 4 ("Synthetic Ligand-Receptor Interactions in Delivery Systems") the authors are describing what is involved in the design of a synthetic receptor (as opposed to designing a ligand, which is a more common pharmaceutical problem). The next chapter is entitled "Nanoscale Analysis of Mucus-Carrier Interactions for Improved Drug Absorption". It describes the structure of the mucous layer on the molecular level and discusses the interaction of this layer with synthetic polymers.The final sixth chapter of the "intelligent therapeutics" part is dedicated to
Fake and Counterfeit Drug: A review
OV Buowari
Afrimedic Journal , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drugs are used to cure or treat disease, relieve symptoms, ease pain, prevent disease or symptoms,eliminate or reduce symptoms and to slow the disease process. The problem of fake drugs is wide spread affecting both developing and developed nations, assumes added significance in view of rapid globalisation and is assuming a dangerous dimension in most countries. METHODOLOGY: A review of literature on counterfeit drug and it impact was done. The articles were accessed from public libraries, as well as online through internet search engines and relevant information extracted. RESULTS: The burden of counterfeit is a enormous and can result in treatment failure, end organs damage and toxicity, death, economic loss as well as of loss of confidence in the healthcare system Conclusion: Trade in counterfeit drugs appears to be wide spread and affects both developing and developed countries. The fight against counterfeit and fake drugs is multisectional and requires a prolonged approach. It requires all stake holders to contribute actively in order to achieve success.
The Subtle Plague: Materialistic Visage of Neocolonialism and Its Consequences in Armah’s Fragments
OV Ogbeide
African Research Review , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examines the materialistic visage of neocolonialism in Ayi Kwei Armah’s Fragments. While neocolonialism is often seen in African leaders’ role as stooges of the erstwhile colonial powers in order to perpetuate themselves in office, this paper argues that the masses’ unbridled penchant for foreign goods and life styles is itself another form of neocolonialism, albeit subtle. This paper not only sees this development as part of the “new realism” which came in the wake of political independence but also posits that the way forward in the continent may lie in nonconformity, its repercussions notwithstanding and a return to the way of production, human relationship and reciprocity as symbolized by the visionary Naana.
Cardiac arrhythmias in medical practice: clinical case of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis type 2 as a cause of recurrent atrial fibrillation
OV Gaisenok
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology , 2010,
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia. Amiodarone is an effective drug used for atrial fibrillation treatment. Various side effects of this drug including amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis are discussed. A clinical case is presented to provide data for the differential diagnosis between types 1 and 2 of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and to define approaches to the treatment.
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