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Transfer of immunoglobulins through the mammary endothelium and epithelium and in the local lymph node of cows during the initial response after intramammary challenge with E. coli endotoxin
Karinstensson, Shichun Lun
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-26
Abstract: The content of IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA and albumin (BSA) was examined in peripheral/afferent mammary lymph and lymph leaving the supramammary lymph nodes, and in blood and milk before (0 h) and during 4 hours after intramammary challenge with Esherichia coli endotoxin in 5 cows.Igs increased most rapidly in afferent lymph resulting in higher concentrations than in efferent lymph at postinfusion hour (PIH) 2, contrary to before challenge. Ig concentrations in milk were lower than in lymph; except for IgA at 0 h; and they increased more slowly. Afferent lymph:serum and efferent lymph:serum concentration ratios (CR) of Igs were similar to those of BSA but slightly lower. Milk:afferent lymph (M:A) CRs of each Ig, except for IgG2, showed strikingly different pattern than those of BSA. The M:A CR of IgG1, IgM and IgA were higher than that of BSA before challenge and the CR of IgA and IgG1 remained higher also thereafter. At PIH 2 there was a drop in Ig CRs, except for IgG2, in contrast to the BSA CR which gradually increased. The M:A CR of IgM and Ig A decreased from 0 h to PIH 4, in spite of increasing permeability.The transfer of Igs through the endothelium appeared to be merely a result of diffusion although their large molecular size may hamper the diffusion. The transfer through the epithelium and the Ig concentrations in milk seemed more influenced by selective mechanisms and local sources, respectively. Our observations indicate a selective mechanism in the transfer of IgG1 through the epithelium also in lactating glands, not previously shown; a local synthesis of IgA and possibly of IgM, released primarily into milk, not into tissue fluid; that IgG2 transfer through both barriers is a result of passive diffusion only and that the content of efferent lymph is strongly influenced by IgG1, IgM and IgA in the mammary tissue, brought to the lymph node by afferent lymph.Bovine mastitis has been extensively studied but mainly as reflected in milk and circulating blood. Inve
Is there a special mechanism behind the changes in somatic cell and polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts, and composition of milk after a single prolonged milking interval in cows?
Branislav Lakic, Ewa Wredle, Kerstin Svennersten-Sjaunja, Karinstensson
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-51-4
Abstract: Composite cow milk samples were taken at the milkings twice daily during 7 days before and 5 days after a PMI of 24 h. Milk was analyzed for SCC, PMN, fat, protein and lactose, and at some occasions also casein and free fatty acids (FFA).During the PMI the proportion of milk PMN increased sharply in spite of marginally increased SCC. The peak SCC was not observed until the second milking after the PMI, in the afternoon day 1. However, the peak SCC value in morning milk did not occur until one day later, concomitantly with a decrease in the proportion of PMN. After declining, SCC still remained elevated while PMN proportion was decreased throughout the study as was also the milk yield, after the first accumulation of milk during the PMI. Milk composition was changed the day after the PMI, (increased fat and protein content; decreased lactose, whey protein and FFA content) but the changes in the following days were not consistent except for lactose that remained decreased the rest of the study.The PMI resulted in increased SCC and proportion of PMN. Additionally, it gave rise to minor alterations in the milk composition in the following milkings but no adverse effect on milk quality was observed. The recruitment of PMN, which was further enhanced the first day after the PMI, appeared to be independent of milk volume or accumulation of milk per se. Hence, we suggest that there is a special immunophysiological/chemoattractant background to the increased migration of leukocytes into the milk compartment observed during and after the PMI.A technical stop in an automated milking system (AMS) results in a prolonged milking interval (PMI) which for many cows may be fairly pronounced. Intervals of up to 24 hours have been observed (personal communication, Gunnar Pettersson, research manager, Kungs?ngen Research Centre, SLU, http://www.huv.slu.se webcite). It has been noticed that many cows show a short-lasting increase in milk somatic cell count/ml (SCC) shortly after the sto
Lieb-Thirring inequalities for higher order differential operators
Clemens F?rster,J?rgen ?stensson
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: We derive Lieb-Thirring inequalities for the Riesz means of eigenvalues of order gamma >= 3/4 for fourth order Schr\"odinger operators in arbitrary dimensions. We also consider some extensions to polyharmonic operators, and to systems of such operators. For the critical case gamma = 1 - 1/2l in dimension d=1 with differential order 2l >= 4 we prove the strict inequality L^0(l,gamma,d) < L(l,gamma,d), which holds in contrast to current conjectures.
Explorative Teaching and Research—From Memory Work to Experience Stories  [PDF]
Karin Widerberg
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.714196
Abstract: Memory work is an approach developed to help us problematize the things we take for granted and as such an invitation to methodological explorations in teaching and research. By our own stories of memories and experiences we are invited to look for variety—in our own stories as well as in relation to the stories of the others—regarding content as well as interpretations. A set of techniques is developed to make this happen, in writing as well as in analyzing. Focusing on the social aspects of a story does not only imply a possibility to connect different analytical levels (micro and macro) and verify concepts and theories. It also allows us to question or specify fixed or simplified categories and concepts by making other memories, experiences and understandings visible. As such it is an approach that stimulates creativity and knowledge production in both teaching and research, to the joy of all participants. In this article it is illustrated how the approach can be used in different settings and on different themes in both teaching and research hereby also illuminating the kinds of knowledge that can be gained. Cases and detailed accounts of how the approach can be used when teaching a one-day workshop, a three-day course but also in a two-hour lecture in a regular class on BA-level are given. Examples of the use of the approach in different research projects are also presented so as to illuminate the bridge between research and teaching and how research approaches can be made into teaching approaches. The illustrations are meant to inspire further use and development of the approach so as to fit different situations and themes in teaching and research.
Missing the Target?—Targeted Therapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer  [PDF]
Karin R. Purshouse
Advances in Lung Cancer (ALC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alc.2014.33008

Small cell lung cancer [SCLC] is a devastating form of cancer, with most patients harbouring extensive disease at diagnosis and survival of less than 5% at five years. Progress in novel therapies has been limited. This specialist review explores current targeted therapy options and potential areas of development.

Towards a Semantic Lexicon for Biological Language Processing
Karin Verspoor
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2005, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.451
Abstract: This paper explores the use of the resources in the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for the construction of a lexicon useful for processing texts in the field of molecular biology. A lexicon is constructed from overlapping terms in the UMLS SPECIALIST lexicon and the UMLS Metathesaurus to obtain both morphosyntactic and semantic information for terms, and the coverage of a domain corpus is assessed. Over 77% of tokens in the domain corpus are found in the constructed lexicon, validating the lexicon's coverage of the most frequent terms in the domain and indicating that the constructed lexicon is potentially an important resource for biological text processing.
Using the Response Surface Method to Optimize the Turning Process of AISI 12L14 Steel
Karin Kandananond
Advances in Mechanical Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/362406
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal cutting conditions for surface roughness in a turning process. This process is performed in the final assembly department at a manufacturing company that supplies fluid dynamic bearing (FDB) spindle motors for hard disk drives (HDDs). The workpieces used were the sleeves of FDB motors made of ferritic stainless steel, grade AISI 12L14. The optimized settings of key machining factors, depth of cut, spindle speed, and feed rate on the surface roughness of the sleeve were determined using the response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicate that the surface roughness is minimized when the depth of cut is set to the lowest level, while the spindle speed and feed rate are set to the highest levels. Even though the results from this paper are process specific, the methodology deployed can be readily applied to different turning processes. 1. Introduction Hard disk drives (HDDs) are magnetic discs used to store data in most computer systems, and they are rotated by the spindle motors to read-write data. The standard technology for spindle motor is fluid dynamic bearing (FDB) [1]. The crucial part of the FDB is the spindle motor sleeve which contains fluid to reduce the stress between the rotating shaft and sleeve. The turning process is utilized to manufacture the FDB sleeve, and the surface roughness of sleeve is known to affect the quality of the sleeve. Since the surface quality depends on many factors including feed rate, depth of cut, and spindle speed, the surface roughness will be minimized if the relationship between turning process parameters and the surface quality is fully recognized [2]. 2. Literature Review Among the most basic operations performed by machine tools are drilling, milling, grinding, and turning or lathing. The turning process is a machining method that removes material from the surface using a rotating cutting tool that moves to a workpiece. The surface quality, which is measured in terms of surface roughness, is utilized to evaluate the performance of the turning operation. The surface roughness is known to be significantly affected by different cutting parameters, that is, the depth of cut, spindle speed, and feed rate [3]. Therefore, the surface roughness will be optimized if the appropriate cutting conditions are selected. Statistical prediction methods, such as the response surface methodology (RSM), are frequently utilized to model the surface roughness, so that the desired levels of machining parameters are achieved. There are numerous works reporting the success
Effectively Monitoring the Performance of Integrated Process Control Systems under Nonstationary Disturbances
Karin Kandananond
International Journal of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/180293
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of autocorrelation coefficients, shift magnitude, types of control charts, types of controllers, and types of monitored signals on a control system. Statistical process control (SPC) and automatic process control (APC) were studied under non-stationary stochastic disturbances characterized by the integrated moving average model, ARIMA  (0,1,1). A process model was simulated to achieve two responses, mean squared error (MSE) and average run length (ARL). A factorial design experiment was conducted to analyze the simulated results. The results revealed that not only shift magnitude and the level of autocorrelation coefficients, but also the interaction between these two factors, affected the integrated system performance. It was also found that the most appropriate combination of SPC and APC is the utilization of the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) controller with the Shewhart moving range (MR) chart, while monitoring the control signal (X) from the controller. Therefore, integrating SPC and APC can improve process manufacturing, but the performance of the integrated system is significantly affected by process autocorrelation. Therefore, if the performance of the integrated system under non-stationary disturbances is correctly characterized, practitioners will have guidelines for achieving the highest possible performance potential when integrating SPC and APC.
Monopolizing Clinical Trial Data: Implications and Trends
Karin Timmermans
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040002
Parameter expansion for estimation of reduced rank covariance matrices (Open Access publication)
Karin Meyer
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-40-1-3
Abstract: (To access full article, please see PDF)
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