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Evaluation of Radiographic Repeat Rate Data and Film Reject Analysis of Radiology Departments in Several Hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Simak Sabzevari,Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2011,
Abstract: Background/Objective: Rejected and repeated"nradiographies are one of the most frequent difficulties"nin radiography. The dose received by patients,"nequipment fault, costs and patients wait time increases"nby increasing film rejection and repeat rate. Moreover,"nthis leads to decreasing the care level because of the"ndelay in film report. This study aims to evaluate the"nfilm rejection and repeat rate in university-affiliated"nhospitals of Hamadan City."nMaterials and Methods: After reviewing the related"narticles about film rejection and their mentioned"nreasons for repeat rate, a checklist was designed for"nevaluating film rejection and the related reasons."nReject rate data was evaluated by study executives,"nsecretly in each hospital, for a 6-month-period and"nnoted on checklists. Statistical analysis was performed"nby descriptive statistics and related statistical tests, by"nSPSS software."nResults: The repeat rate was between 2.67% and"n6.84% (mean, 6.13%) in the evaluated hospitals. The"nmain factors of film rejection belonged to patient's"nmovement or bad condition (26.6%) and improper"nexposure factors (23.4%). The repeat rate data in"nradiography of the neck (9%) and pelvis (8.6%) was"nthe highest amount and in radiography of the chest"n(3.8%) was the lowest amount."nConclusion: Annually waste costs because of film"nrejection, other than costs related to processing"nsolutions and equipment outwearing, was calculated as"napproximately one hundred million Rials. So, special"nattention to this subject seems to be necessary."nKeywords: Film Rejects, Radiology, Repeat Rate
A Comparison of the effectiveness of Mammographic Film-Screen and Standard Film-Screen in the Detection of Small Bone Fractures
Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani,Mahmoodreza Jafari,Nima Rostampoor
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The use of mammography film-screen is limited in general radiography. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mammographic film-screen and standard film-screen systems in the detection of small bone fractures. Radiographs were taken from patients' extremities and neck areas using mammography film-screen and standard film-screen (n=57 each). Fourteen other radiographs were taken from other views (predominantly oblique views), making a total number of 128 radiographs. Paired radiographs, taken from the same areas, were compared by two radiologists in terms of image visual sharpness, presence of bony fractures, and soft tissue injuries. The surface dose received by patients in the two systems was also compared. The radiographs taken by mammography film-screen had a statistically better visual sharpness compared to those taken by the standard film-screen system. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the diagnostic accuracy of the two systems. Mammography film-screen was able to detect only one out of 57 lesions, whereas standard film-screen system did not detec any lesion. The surface dose received by patients in mammography film-screen was higher than that in standard film-screen system. The findings of the present study suggest that mammography film-screen may be recommended as a diagnostic tool for the detection of small fractures of tinny parts of body such as fingers, hand or foot. They also suggest that mammography film-screen has no advantage over standard film-screen for radiography of thick body parts such as neck and knee.
Measurement of the illumination in official and educational places in Universities of Hamadan and comparison with international standards
Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani,Reza Habibipour,Maryam Mojiri
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: There are many related factors effecting on learning and education improvements in each educational system. According to importance of lighting conditions on learning level and advancing of the performance, this study aims to evaluate the lighting conditions at classrooms and official places at Hamadan city affiliated Universities.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lighting conditions at educational classrooms, official places and corridors of Hamadan city affiliated universities (Azad, Buali Sina, Payame noor, Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Moaalem and Technical School) were evaluated. A calibrated Luxmeter was used for measurements of lighting intensity. All measurements were using general method based on IESNA guidelines. The gathered results were compared by national lighting standards and IESNA advised amounts.Results: the mean of lighting intensity at classrooms of evaluated universities was between 301-666 Lux. This result indicates that the lighting level of majority of classrooms is in proper range. But the uniformity of lighting at majority of places was more than 50% and was not in standard range.Conclusion: The general lighting level at all of universities was upper than the lowest standard amount and the lighting conditions estimates as good. But in majority of cases (especially at university corridors) the mean of lighting intensity was upper than maximum advised amount.
A Comparison of the Efficacy of Castor Oil and Senagroph Herbal Extract in Patients' Bowel Preparation
Karim Ghazikanlou Sani,Mahmoodreza Jafari,Hasan Gheshlaghi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2011,
Abstract: Background/Objective: Bowel preparation has been"nconsidered necessary in radiologic examinations of the"nabdominal region to improve the diagnostic quality and"naccuracy. This study compares the effectiveness, side"neffects and patient tolerance of two bowel preparation"nregimens with castor oil and Senagraph herbal extract"nin bowel preparation of outpatients for intravenous"nurography (IVU)."nPatients and Methods: One-hundred fourteen"nconsecutive outpatients were randomized to receive"nstandard bowel preparation with 40 mL of castor oil"nor 60 mL of Senagraph herbal extract before IVU"nexamination. Demographic characteristics such as age,"ngender and prior bowel preparation experience were"nthe same in both groups. Two radiologists, unaware"nof the method of bowel preparation, reviewed"nthe standard radiographs and graded the bowel"npreparation. The tolerance and acceptability of both"nregimens was assessed by a self administered structured"nquestionnaire. Informed consent was obtained for"npatients who received Senagraph syrup."nResults: Numbers, ages and gender distribution of"npatients in the two groups did not differ significantly"nfrom each other. Cleanliness scores for the castor oil"nand Senagraph group were 3.97±0.971 and 4.87±0.917,"nrespectively indicating better colon cleansing of"nSenagraph syrup. Side effects (such as vomiting, nausea,"nthirst, abdominal fullness, fainting and insomnia) in"nthe Senagraph group were lower than the castor oil"ngroup. Acceptability of regimens in patients who use"nSenagraph herbal extract was higher than the other"ngroup."nConclusion: The regimen of Senagraph group was"nsignificantly effective and better tolerated than the"nregimens of castor oil group in bowel cleansing. The"nincidence and grade of side-effects of castor oil were"nhigher than Senagraph."nKeywords: Bowel Preparation, Castor Oil, Senagraph"nHerbal Extract, Intravenous Urography.
Evaluation of the Degree of Educational Goal Fulfillment of Theoretical Courses in Technology for Radiology Students in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
Karim Ghazi-Khanlou Sani,Safar Shams
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background/Objective: Evaluation of educational programs is very important in the process of programming. Evaluation is a comparison between educational results and predetermined goals in order to make decision about programs. Via evaluation, one can judge about programs and of course can correct or change them if necessary. "nMaterials and Methods: In this study, the degree of fulfillment of educational goals for radiology students in technology has been evaluated from 1385 to 1386 by distributing questionnaires among these students. The relationship between fulfillment of educational goals and scores of students in different semesters were evaluated by statistical analysis. "nResults: About 24%, 96% and 100% of students of semester 1, 2 and 3 completely answered the ques-tions and the others were excluded from the study. About 79.3% of the first semester students of radiology assessed a medium fulfillment of educational goals, but in one case, public health lesson, most of them (64%) believed in low fulfillment of goals. Second semester students of radiology, as the same ratio, assessed the fulfillment of goals as high, medium and low. Most of the third semester students (60.3%) believed that the fulfillment of educational goals had been medium. Most of students believed that the degree of fulfillment of educational goals of courses taught by professors who were not members of the school was higher. There was no statistically significant relation between the fulfillment of educational goals and the score of students in related lessons. "nConclusion: The study revealed that the degree of fulfillment of educational goals for students in different semesters of Radiology was different. There were significant differences between fulfillment of educational goals in theoretical courses conducted by groups inside and outside the paramedical school. "nKeywords: Educational Planning, Vocational Education, Evaluation, Technology, Radiology Student
Patients’ Dose Estimation in Diagnostic Imaging by Iranian Physicians
Karim Ghazi-Khanlou Sani,Mahmood Reza Jafari,Hasan Zandi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background/Objective: Nowadays, radiation is widely used in the diagnosis of many diseases, but hazards of radiation are an important limitation in the use of radiation for medical purposes. Awareness of radiation doses received by patients in different radiological examinations is the main step of patients' radiation protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of doctor's knowledge about radiation doses received by patients in radiological examinations. "nPatients and Methods: A questionnaire was compiled and the most commonly requested radiological investigations were listed. Participants were asked to identify the average dose of radiation received by patients when they underwent a posterior-anterior hand x-ray. This was then utilized to represent a single dose of radiation, and doctors were asked to estimate the equivalent doses of radiation for other radiological examinations. The correct answers were derived from other related studies and text books. The questionnaire also had some questions about dose measurement units and low exposure risk investigations. We asked a convenience sample of 155 physicians. About 77% of the participants answered the questions completely. "nResults: The results indicated that only 58.3% of the doctors know the units of radiation absorb dose measurement units. Most of the doctors could not correctly estimate the amount of the radiation dose received by patients in a routine radiography of the hand and were not aware of the annual maximum permissible dose for the general public. Some of the doctors did not know that sonography and MRI have no radiation dose. The majority of them under estimated the radiation dose received by patients in radiological examinations. "nConclusion: It does seem that most doctors have no idea of the amount of radiation received by patients undergoing commonly requested investigations, despite the fact that they have all passed the medical physics course.
Evaluation sensitometric properties of radiographic films at different processing solutions
Maryam Mojiri,Karim Ghazi khanloo sani,Abbas Moghim Beigi
Journal of Paramedical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare the sensitometric properties of commonly used radiographic films processed with chemical solutions in different workload hospitals. The effect of different processing conditions on induced densities on radiologic films was investigated. Two accessible double emulsions Fuji and Kodak films were exposed with 11-step wedge and processed with Champion and CPAC processing solutions. The mentioned films provided in both workloads centers, high and low. Our findings displays that the speed and contrast of Kodak film-screen in both work load (high and low) is higher than Fuji film-screen for both processing solutions. However there was significant differences (p=0.000 and 0.028) in films contrast for both workloads when CPAC solution had been used. The results showed base plus fog density for Kodak film was lower than Fuji. Generally Champion processing solution caused more speed and contrast for investigated films in different conditions and there was significant difference(p=0.01) in 95% confidence level between two used processing solutions. Low base plus fog density for Kodak films provide more visibility and accuracy and higher contrast results in using lower exposure factors to obtain better quality in resulting radiographs. In this study we found an economic advantages since Champion solution and Kodak film are used while it makes lower patient dose. Thus, in a radiologic facility any change in film processor/processing cycle or chemistry should be carefully investigated before radiological procedures of patients are acquired.
Feeding studies of radiation sterilization ready to eat foods on sprague dawley rats: In vivo  [PDF]
Zubaidah Irawati, Yulvian Sani
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.42017
Abstract: Development of gamma irradiated high moisture traditional dishes derived from locally traditional récipe aimed for specific target groups as ready to eat foods for ensuring the safety, quality, and security purposes have been conducted. The formation of free radicals in the traditional foods induced by ionizing radiation is a part of toxicological studies on irradiated traditional foods was to provide local scientific data base on safe- ty issues.The different foods such as steamed gold fish, spicy curry beef and soy sauces beef were individually vacuum packed in a laminate pouch of PET 12 μm/LDPE 2 μm/AL-Foil 7 μm/LDPE 2 μm/LLDPE 50 μm (PET/Al-Foil/ LLDPE), then kept at frozen state. The frozen samples were maintained in cryogenic condition along the irradiation process by placing the samples in styrofoam boxes filled with dry ice then irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 45 kGy. The irradiated samples were kept and stored at normal temperature prior to test. Both irradiated conventional rat’s feed at normal temperature with the dose of 4 kGy and unirradiated one as control were also made. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were sent to animal laboratory, and fed into individual female Sprague Dawley rat as member of a group. The parameters observed were body weight changed of rats, toxicological test to observe the effect free radicals formation in rat’s blood by using malon-dialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) methods, respectively, and anatomy pathology diagnosis. Different types of the foods sterilized by ionizing radiation fed ad libitum to the individual Sprague Dawley rat demonstrated that such foods did not give any adverse effect on the reduction of body weight, the toxicological impact, nor anatomy-pathology examinations of the rats.
Impact of Somatic Symptoms on Identification of Depression among General Outpatients by Family Physicians in North-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Auwal Sani Salihu
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.53031
Abstract: In many places in the world, General Practitioners are only able to identify depression in a small fraction of depressed patients presenting to general outpatient department. The effect of somatic symptoms on its recognition was investigated. The study determines the identification rate of depression by general practitioners among outpatients with somatic symptoms and those without somatic symptoms. This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Family Medicine Department, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen selected participants. Forms were used by GPs to itemize medical and psychiatric symptoms elicited as well as medical and psychiatric diagnoses made. Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) version 2.1, was used to confirm the diagnosis of depression. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used for severity using items 11-14 of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Those with somatic symptoms score of 1-3 were rated as having low and those with 4-10 were rated as having high. Of the 410 outpatients recruited, 402 participated in the study. Two hundred and thirteen were screened depressed (HADS). Two hundred were confirmed depressed using SCAN (49.8%). The GPs identified 31.3% of those participants diagnosed depressed without somatic symptoms compared to 15.2% of those who were diagnosed depressed with somatic symptoms. However, no significant association was found between GPs ability to identify depression in the presence or absence of somatic symptoms (p = 0.09). This study found no association between GPs ability to identify depression and presence or absence of somatic symptoms (χ2 = 2.75, p = 0.09). However, this study found that the higher the level of somatic symptoms the more unlikely it’s for GPs to identify depression. To reduce the burden of depression by early detection and treatment, continuing medical education of GPs should include skills in identification of depression.
Fournier's Gangrene: Experience with Management of 46 Cases in a Tertiary Institution  [PDF]
Sani Ali Aji, Sani Usman Alhassan, Musa Muhammad Ujudud
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.23019
Abstract: Background: Fournier's gangrene is a rapidly spreading necrotizing gangrene affecting the perineum, Perianal and genital regions but remarkably sparing the testicles, bladder and rectum due to their separate blood supply which is directly from the aorta. The aim of this study is to share our experience with the management of 46 cases. Patients and method: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 46 patients admitted with Fournier's gangrene between April 2005 and December 2011 in the urology unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Data extracted from these include age, sex, hospital stay, premorbid diseases, mobility, mortality, laboratory investigations and treatments carried out. Results: Fourty six patients were admitted and managed for Fournier's gangrene during the study period. All the patients were male and mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Five patients died (10.90%) mortality, 41 (89.10%) patients survived. The shortest hospital stay was 13 days and longest was 120 days. 45.7% of the patients had urethral stricture with watering can perineum as predisposing factor, 16 (34.80%) had diabetes mellitus, 7 (15.2%) had perineal injuries as the predisposing factors while 5 (10.90%) patients had uraemia and one patient (2.20%) each had bladder tumour and scrotal abscess as their predisposing factors, in 3 patients (6.50%) it was idiopathic. Only 34 (73.90%) patients had wound swab microscopy culture and sensitivity on admission. The culture grew Klebsiella spp. in 9 (26.50%), Staph aureus and E. coli in 5 (10.90%) of cases each, while Gram positive rod and Gram negative Cocci with 4 (11.80%) and 6 (17.60%) respectively. Conclusion: Fournier's gangrene which is a rapidly progressive, fulminant polymicrobial synergistic infection of the perineum and genitals, is now changing pattern. Extensive surgical debridement and broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment.
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