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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 213138 matches for " Karen L. Hopkins "
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A Modeled Analysis of Telehealth Methods for Treating Pressure Ulcers after Spinal Cord Injury
Mark W. Smith,Michelle L. Hill,Karen L. Hopkins,B. Jenny Kiratli,Ruth C. Cronkite
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/729492
Abstract: Home telehealth can improve clinical outcomes for conditions that are common among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about the costs and potential savings associated with its use. We developed clinical scenarios that describe common situations in treatment or prevention of pressure ulcers. We calculated the cost implications of using telehealth for each scenario and under a range of reasonable assumptions. Data were gathered primarily from US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative records. For each scenario and treatment method, we multiplied probabilities, frequencies, and costs to determine the expected cost over the entire treatment period. We generated low-, medium-, and high-cost estimates based on reasonable ranges of costs and probabilities. Telehealth care was less expensive than standard care when low-cost technology was used but often more expensive when high-cost, interactive devices were installed in the patient’s home. Increased utilization of telehealth technology (particularly among rural veterans with SCI) could reduce the incidence of stage III and stage IV ulcers, thereby improving veterans' health and quality of care without increasing costs. Future prospective studies of our present scenarios using patients with various healthcare challenges are recommended. 1. Introduction Telehealth, or telemedicine, is the use of telecommunications and information technology to provide health care when distance separates the participants. A number of studies have shown that home telehealth interventions can improve clinical outcomes for a variety of conditions such as dermatology [1] and diabetes [2–4]. Several studies have investigated its use in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), in particular for the ability to detect and stage pressure ulcers (PUs) [5, 6]. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors make these ulcers common in patients with SCI. For example, transfer-mobility problems, home-environment adaptive equipment issues, recreational activities, spasticity, and bowel and bladder incontinence may all contribute to the occurrence of skin compromise and PU development. Telehealth appears to be a logical option for PU diagnosis and followup, particularly when the patient is not close to a local facility or transportation is difficult. However, there has been no investigation into the costs and potential savings associated with its use for persons with SCI in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. This is unfortunate because of the relatively large number of patients with
Baseline characteristics influencing quality of life in women undergoing gynecologic oncology surgery
Karen M Gil, Heidi E Gibbons, Eric L Jenison, Michael P Hopkins, Vivian E von Gruenigen
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-25
Abstract: This study examined the effect of independent variables on domains of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-G) pre-operatively in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing surgery for pelvic mass suspected to be malignant or endometrial cancer. Patients also completed the Short Form Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36) questionnaire (a generic health questionnaire that measures physical and mental health). Independent variables were surgical diagnosis (ovarian or endometrial cancer, benign mass), age, body mass index (BMI), educational level, marital status, smoking status, physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) summary scores of the SF-36. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the influence of these variables on FACT-G domain scores (physical, functional, social and emotional well-being).Data were collected on 157 women at their pre-operative visit (33 ovarian cancer, 45 endometrial cancer, 79 determined at surgery to be benign). Mean scores on the FACT-G subscales and SF-36 summary scores did not differ as a function of surgical diagnosis. PCS, MCS, age, and educational level were positively correlated with physical well-being, while increasing BMI was negatively correlated. Functional well-being was positively correlated with PCS and MCS and negatively correlated with BMI. Social well-being was positively correlated with MCS and negatively correlated with BMI and educational level. PCS, MCS and age were positively correlated with emotional well-being. Models that included PCS and MCS accounted for 30 to 44% of the variability in baseline physical, emotional, and functional well-being on the FACT-G.At the time of diagnosis and treatment, patients' QoL is affected by inherent characteristics. Assessment of treatment outcome should take into account the effect of these independent variables. As treatment options become more complex, these variables are likely to be of increasing importance in evaluating treatment effects on QoL.Women diagnosed with gynec
Effect of method of administration on longitudinal assessment of quality of life in gynecologic cancer: An exploratory study
Karen M Gil, Heidi E Frasure, Michael P Hopkins, Eric L Jenison, Vivian E von Gruenigen
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-6
Abstract: Gynecologic oncology patients completed a computer version of the FACT-G pre-operatively and at six months. Patients were given the option of using the paper version instead of the computer at either time point. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used.One hundred nineteen patients completed the FACT-G at both time points. Seventy-one (60%) patients used the computer at both visits, 26 (21.8%) used the computer followed by the paper version, 17 (14.3%) used the paper version followed by the computer version, and five patients (4.2%) used the paper version at both visits. Significant effects over time were obtained in the physical, functional, and emotional well-being domains, and in total scores, but there were no effects of method of administration of the questionnaires and no interaction between method of administration and changes over time.These data indicate that women are responding to the content of the questionnaire and not method of data collection. Although using the same method of administration of instruments over time is desirable, using alternate methods is preferable to forgoing data collection entirely. Large scale studies should be conducted to determine if the multiple methods of data collection that are becoming increasingly available are producing interchangeable information.Measurement of changes in quality of life (QoL) has become a standard outcome variable in evaluating different therapeutic regimes in cancer [1-3]. Standardized, validated and reliable questionnaires are available for the measurement of changes in QoL [4-7]. Additionally, the use of these instruments by clinicians caring for patients is being explored [8-11]. Assessing changes in QoL as patients progress through the course of disease and treatment increases the need for longitudinal assessment.Computer versions of these questionnaires have become available and can be used for longitudinal assessments [12-17]. These systems are well accepted by patients [12,16-19] and a
Follicular Dendritic Cell-Specific Prion Protein (PrPc) Expression Alone Is Sufficient to Sustain Prion Infection in the Spleen
Laura McCulloch,Karen L. Brown,Barry M. Bradford,John Hopkins,Mick Bailey,Klaus Rajewsky,Jean C. Manson,Neil A. Mabbott
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002402
Abstract: Prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), in affected tissues. Following peripheral exposure high levels of prion-specific PrPSc accumulate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in lymphoid tissues before spreading to the CNS. Expression of PrPC is mandatory for cells to sustain prion infection and FDC appear to express high levels. However, whether FDC actively replicate prions or simply acquire them from other infected cells is uncertain. In the attempts to-date to establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis it was not possible to dissociate the Prnp expression of FDC from that of the nervous system and all other non-haematopoietic lineages. This is important as FDC may simply acquire prions after synthesis by other infected cells. To establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis transgenic mice were created in which PrPC expression was specifically “switched on” or “off” only on FDC. We show that PrPC-expression only on FDC is sufficient to sustain prion replication in the spleen. Furthermore, prion replication is blocked in the spleen when PrPC-expression is specifically ablated only on FDC. These data definitively demonstrate that FDC are the essential sites of prion replication in lymphoid tissues. The demonstration that Prnp-ablation only on FDC blocked splenic prion accumulation without apparent consequences for FDC status represents a novel opportunity to prevent neuroinvasion by modulation of PrPC expression on FDC.
Pre-capacity building in loosely-coupled collaborations: Setting the stage for future initiatives
Cheryl A. Hyde,Karen Hopkins,Megan Meyer
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2012,
Abstract: This article examines the benefits and limitations of ‘loosely-coupled’ research collaborations between university faculty and 12 grassroots community-based organisations (CBOs). The authors assert that community-based research projects that develop the knowledge base within CBOs, and can be described as ‘pre-capacity building’ work, can be an important stepping stone to the subsequent development of more formal and strategic capacity-building partnership ventures. However, such projects must be approached carefully with a clear understanding of the ‘threshold dimensions’ that must be met before proceeding with any collaboration. Written as a cautionary tale, the authors identify some of the problems that arise when the threshold stage is poorly executed, and more generally speak to the dangers of initiating even loosely-coupled collaborations in the absence of an explicit and well-established campus commitment to and support for community engagement and partnerships. Keywords: Community capacity-building, community-university partnerships, community research, collaboration
JOSE MARIA CABALLERO, Economía agraria de la sierra peruana, antes de la reforma agraria de 1969.
Raúl Hopkins
Revista Economía , 1981,
Abstract: No contiene resumen.
黑蝗初孵蝗蝻对植物气味和植物挥发性化合物的行为和嗅觉反应
康乐,T.,L.,Hopkins
科学通报 , 2004,
Abstract: 利用Y型嗅觉仪和触角电位技术(EAG)测定黑蝗(Melanoplussanguinipes)初孵蝗蝻对植物气味和植物挥发性化合物的嗅觉反应.在单选择实验中,蝗蝻对完整叶片(stemcutplant)及切叶(choppedplant)的黑麦草和小麦气味反应高于其他植物.切叶的高粱气味也有吸引作用,但对完整的高粱叶片无反应.初孵蝗蝻对受试植物气味的定向反应与末龄蝗蝻及成虫的反应一致.在双选择实验中,以切叶黑麦草气味为对照,发现初孵蝗蝻对完整的苜蓿叶气味反应强,对切叶的高粱、苜蓿、小麦和黑麦草气味的定向反应无明显差异,但对对照切叶黑麦草气味的选择高于切叶的路易斯安纳蒿.初孵蝗蝻对受试植物气味的EAG反应发现,路易斯安纳蒿气味引起的反应最强.用不同的挥发性化合物测定其嗅觉反应发现,蝗蝻对反-3-己醇(Z-3-hexenol)、顺-3-己醇(E-3-hexenol)、反-3-己烯基乙酸酯(Z-hex-3-enylacetate)、顺-2-己醛(E-2-hexenal)和己醛(hexenal)引起的反应高于牻牛儿醇(geraniol)和1-辛烯-3-醇(1-octen-3-ol).此结果与成虫的反应相似.尽管初孵蝗蝻对受试植物气味和化合物的EAG反应值低于成虫,但其嗅觉反应趋势与成虫相似,初孵蝗蝻可区分植物气味与空气对照,甚而可以区分寄主植物与非寄主植物气味.
Behavioral and olfactory responses of grasshopper hatchlings,Melanoplus sanguinipes, to plant odours and volatile compounds
Le Kang,T. L. Hopkins
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2004, DOI: 10.1360/03wc0274
Abstract: Behavior and olfactory responses of grasshopper hatchlings,Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.), to odours from plant foliage and volatile compounds were tested using a glass Y-tube olfactometer and electroantennogram (EAG) techniques respectively. In single choice trials, newly hatched hoppers were much more sensitive to the odour from intact leaves and chopped foliage of ryegrass and wheat than other plants. Chopped sorghum leaves, but not stem-cut sorghum, were also significantly attractive. The orientation responses of grasshopper hatchlings to these plants were highly consistent with those of last instar hoppers and adults. When ryegrass was employed as the control, the odour from stem-cut alfalfa was more attractive. There was no significant difference in hopper orientation responses to the odours from chopped seedlings of sorghum, alfalfa, wheat or ryegrass. However, significantly more hoppers preferred the chopped ryegrass control to chopped Louisanna sage. Measurement of the EAG response of first instar hoppers to these plant odours showed that the odour of Louisanna sage elicited the greatest response amplitudes. In olfactory tests using different volatile components, Z-3-hexenol, E-3-hexenol, Z-hex-3-enyl acetate, E-2-hexenal and hexenal gave greater EAG responses than geraniol and 1-octen-3-ol. These results are also consistent with comparable data from adults. Newly hatched grasshoppers had similar EAG response profiles to plant materials and chemicals to those of adults, although the absolute EAG values of young hoppers were much lower than those of adults. Therefore, newly hatched hoppers were able to distinguish plants from an air control, and even host plants from non-host plants, and the feeding experience of hoppers probably has little influence on their subsequent ability as adults to identify and locate food plants.
Turbulent Disks are Never Stable: Fragmentation and Turbulence-Promoted Planet Formation
Philip F. Hopkins,Jessie L. Christiansen
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/48
Abstract: A fundamental assumption in our understanding of disks is that when the Toomre Q>>1, the disk is stable against fragmentation into self-gravitating objects (and so cannot form planets via direct collapse). But if disks are turbulent, this neglects a spectrum of stochastic density fluctuations that can produce rare, high-density mass concentrations. Here, we use a recently-developed analytic framework to predict the statistics of these fluctuations, i.e. the rate of fragmentation and mass spectrum of fragments formed in a turbulent Keplerian disk. Turbulent disks are never completely stable: we calculate the (always finite) probability of forming self-gravitating structures via stochastic turbulent density fluctuations in such disks. Modest sub-sonic turbulence above Mach number ~0.1 can produce a few stochastic fragmentation or 'direct collapse' events over ~Myr timescales, even if Q>>1 and cooling is slow (t_cool>>t_orbit). In trans-sonic turbulence this extends to Q~100. We derive the true Q-criterion needed to suppress such events, which scales exponentially with Mach number. We specify to turbulence driven by MRI, convection, or spiral waves, and derive equivalent criteria in terms of Q and the cooling time. Cooling times >~50*t_dyn may be required to completely suppress fragmentation. These gravoturbulent events produce mass spectra peaked near ~M_disk*(Q*M_disk/M_star)^2 (rocky-to-giant planet masses, increasing with distance from the star). We apply this to protoplanetary disk models and show that even minimum mass solar nebulae could experience stochastic collapse events, provided a source of turbulence.
Aged Vacuum Packaged Lamb Cuts Are Less Brown than Fresh Muscle Cuts under Simulated Retail Display  [PDF]
Eric N. Ponnampalam, Kym L. Butler, Viv F. Burnett, Matthew B. McDonagh, Joe L. Jacobs, David L. Hopkins
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48A018
Abstract:

Fifty four, seven month old lambs, that had grazed perennial or annual pasture, were slaughtered and at 24 h post mortem m. longissimus lumborum samples were collected. Half of the fresh muscle section was sliced into three pieces and overwrapped with 15 micron polyvinyl chloride film and displayed under light (Lux = 1500) at 3℃ - 4. The remainder of the muscle section was vacuum packaged and aged for 4 weeks at 3, before slicing and display. Surface brownness and redness were measured over 3 days of simulated retail display. Aging in vacuum packs led to substantially less brownness and greater redness compared with fresh meat, over the entire three days of display. It was concluded that aging in vacuum packs could be a useful strategy for improving consumer acceptability of retail lamb in local markets, even where there is no logistical or transport need to extend the life of the meat.

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