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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5082 matches for " Karen Bretherton "
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Policy into practice: an experience of Higher Education Link in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Kedar Nath Dwivedi,Nisha Dogra,Indira Sharma,Karen Bretherton
Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health , 2005,
Abstract: Aim The main aim of the Child and Adolescent Overseas Working Party has been to support the development of services in low-income countries through enhancing their training capacity. This is congruent with the British Council s policy of Higher Education Link. The paper shares an experience of translating such a policy into practice. Method The experience of implementing a British Council Higher Education Link in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between the two Universities in Varanasi and Leicester is shared. Implication In spite of various difficulties, all parties concerned learnt some valuable lessons and found it to be a worthwhile venture.
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
C. Hohenegger,C. S. Bretherton
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES) as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM). Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle. Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
Slow Manifolds and Multiple Equilibria in Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layers
Christopher Bretherton,Junya Uchida,Peter N Blossey
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.3894/james.2010.2.14
Abstract: In marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers under strong inversions, the timescale for thermodynamic adjustment is roughly a day, much shorter than the multiday timescale for inversion height adjustment. Slow-manifold analysis is introduced to exploit this timescale separation when boundary layer air columns experience only slow changes in their boundary conditions. Its essence is that the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer remains approximately slaved to its inversion height and the instantaneous boundary conditions; this slaved structure determines the entrainment rate and hence the slow evolution of the inversion height. Slow-manifold analysis is shown to apply to mixed-layer model and large-eddy simulations of an idealized nocturnal stratocumulus- capped boundary layer; simulations with different initial inversion heights collapse onto single relationships of cloud properties with inversion height. Depending on the initial inversion height, the simulations evolve toward a shallow thin-cloud boundary layer or a deep, well-mixed thick cloud boundary layer. In the large-eddy simulations, these evolutions occur on two separate slow manifolds (one of which becomes unstable if cloud droplet concentration is reduced). Applications to analysis of stratocumulus observations and to pockets of open cells and ship tracks are proposed.
Interpretation of TOVS Water Vapor Radiances Using a Random Strong Line Model
Brian J. Soden,Francis P. Bretherton
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: This study illustrates the application of a random strong line (RSL) model of radiative transfer to the interpretation of satellite observations of the upwelling radiation in the 6.3 micron water vapor absorption band. The model, based upon an assemblage of randomly overlapped, strongly absorbing, pressure broadened lines, is compared to detailed radiative transfer calculations of the upper (6.7 micron) tropospheric water vapor radiance and demonstrated to be accurate to within ~ 1.2 K. Similar levels of accuracy are found when the model is compared to detailed calculations of the middle (7.3 micron) and lower (8.3 micron) tropospheric water vapor radiance, provided that the emission from the underlying surface is taken into account. Based upon these results, the RSL model is used to interpret TOVS-observed water vapor radiances in terms of the relative humidity averaged over deep layers of the upper, middle, and lower troposphere. We then present near-global maps of the geographic distribution and climatological variations of upper, middle and lower tropospheric humidity from TOVS for the period 1981-1991. These maps clearly depict the role of large-scale circulation in regulating the location and temporal variation of tropospheric water vapor.
Large-eddy simulation of mesoscale dynamics and entrainment around a pocket of open cells observed in VOCALS-REx RF06
A. H. Berner, C. S. Bretherton,R. Wood
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: Large-eddy simulations of a pocket of open cells (POC) based on VOCALS Regional Experiment (REx) NSF C-130 Research Flight 06 are analyzed and compared with aircraft observations. A doubly-periodic domain 192 km × 24 km with 125 m horizontal and 5 m vertical grid spacing near the capping inversion is used. The POC is realized in the model as a fixed 96 km wide region of reduced cloud droplet number concentration (Nc) based on observed values; initialization and forcing are otherwise uniform across the domain. The model reproduces aircraft-observed differences in boundary-layer structure and precipitation organization between a well-mixed overcast region and a decoupled POC with open-cell precipitating cumuli, although the simulated cloud cover is too large in the POC. A sensitivity study in which Nc is allowed to advect following the turbulent flow gives nearly identical results over the 16 h length of the simulation (which starts at night and goes into the next afternoon). The simulated entrainment rate is nearly a factor of two smaller in the less turbulent POC than in the more turbulent overcast region. However, the inversion rises at a nearly uniform rate across the domain because powerful buoyancy restoring forces counteract horizontal inversion height gradients. A secondary circulation develops in the model that diverts subsiding free-tropospheric air away from the POC into the surrounding overcast region, counterbalancing the weaker entrainment in the POC with locally weaker subsidence.
Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx
C. R. Jones, C. S. Bretherton,D. Leon
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture and temperature stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL) and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150 m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling. We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the "mixed layer cloud thickness", defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling. In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100 % boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.
The sensitivity of stratocumulus-capped mixed layers to cloud droplet concentration: do LES and mixed-layer models agree?
J. Uchida,C. S. Bretherton,P. N. Blossey
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: The sensitivity of a stratocumulus-capped mixed layer to a change in cloud droplet concentration is evaluated with a large-eddy simulation (LES) and a mixed layer model (MLM), to see if the two model types agree on the strength of the second aerosol indirect effect. Good agreement can be obtained if the MLM entrainment closure explicitly reduces entrainment efficiency proportional to the rate of cloud droplet sedimentation at cloud top for cases in which the LES-simulated boundary layer remains well mixed, with a single peak in the vertical profile of vertical velocity variance. To achieve this agreement, the MLM entrainment closure and the drizzle parameterization must be modified from their observationally-based defaults. This is because the LES advection scheme and microphysical parameterization significantly bias the entrainment rate and precipitation profile compared to observational best guesses. Before this modification, the MLM simulates more liquid water path and much more drizzle at a given droplet concentration than the LES and is more sensitive to droplet concentration, even undergoing a drizzle-induced boundary layer collapse at low droplet concentrations. After this modification, both models predict a similar decrease of cloud liquid water path as droplet concentration increases, cancelling 30–50% of the Twomey effect for our case. The agreement breaks down at the lowest simulated droplet concentrations, for which the boundary layer in the LES is not well mixed. Our results highlight issues with both types of model. Potential LES biases due to inadequate resolution, subgrid mixing and microphysics must be carefully considered when trying to make a quantitative inference of the second indirect effect from an LES of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. On the other hand, even slight internal decoupling of the boundary layer invalidates MLM-predicted sensitivity to droplet concentrations.
Development and impact of hooks of large droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus
R. C. George,R. Wood,C. S. Bretherton,G. Painter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-2493-2013
Abstract: Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally-elongated "hook"-shaped arcs that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights to the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL. The aerosol particles originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago region (33–35° S) emissions to the marine FT. To provide a sustained hook CCN source, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases in time as the hook evolves due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that DMS significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50–70% of the albedo increase due the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model explains the observations and puts them in context of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols
Southeast Pacific stratocumulus clouds, precipitation and boundary layer structure sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx
C. S. Bretherton,R. Wood,R. C. George,D. Leon
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-10639-2010
Abstract: Multiplatform airborne, ship-based, and land-based observations from 16 October–15 November 2008 during the VOCALS Regional Experiment (REx) are used to document the typical structure of the Southeast Pacific stratocumulus-topped boundary layer and lower free troposphere on a~transect along 20° S between the coast of Northern Chile and a buoy 1500 km offshore. Strong systematic gradients in clouds, precipitation and vertical structure are modulated by synoptically and diurnally-driven variability. The boundary layer is generally capped by a strong (10–12 K), sharp inversion. In the coastal zone, the boundary layer is typically 1 km deep, fairly well mixed, and topped by thin, nondrizzling stratocumulus with accumulation-mode aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations exceeding 200 cm 3. Far offshore, the boundary layer depth is typically deeper (1600 m) and more variable, and the vertical structure is usually decoupled. The offshore stratocumulus typically have strong mesoscale organization, much higher peak liquid water paths, extensive drizzle, and cloud droplet concentrations below 100 cm 3, sometimes with embedded pockets of open cells with lower droplet concentrations. The lack of drizzle near the coast is not just a microphysical response to high droplet concentrations; smaller cloud depth and liquid water path than further offshore appear comparably important. Moist boundary layer air is heated and mixed up along the Andean slopes, then advected out over the top of the boundary layer above adjacent coastal ocean regions. Well offshore, the lower free troposphere is typically much drier. This promotes strong cloud-top radiative cooling and stronger turbulence in the clouds offshore. In conjunction with a slightly cooler free troposphere, this may promote stronger entrainment that maintains the deeper boundary layer seen offshore. Winds from ECMWF and NCEP operational analyses have an rms difference of only 1 m s 1 from collocated airborne leg-mean observations in the boundary layer and 2 m s 1 above the boundary layer. This supports the use of trajectory analysis for interpreting REx observations. Two-day back-trajectories from the 20° S transect suggest that eastward of 75° W, boundary layer (and often free-tropospheric) air has usually been exposed to South American coastal aerosol sources, while at 85° W, neither boundary-layer or free-tropospheric air has typically had such contact.
The sensitivity of stratocumulus-capped mixed layers to cloud droplet concentration: do LES and mixed-layer models agree?
J. Uchida,C. S. Bretherton,P. N. Blossey
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-4097-2010
Abstract: The sensitivity of a stratocumulus-capped mixed layer to a change in cloud droplet concentration is evaluated with a large-eddy simulation (LES) and a mixed layer model (MLM). The strength of the second aerosol indirect effect simulated by the two model types agrees within 50% for cases in which the LES-simulated boundary layer remains well mixed, if the MLM entrainment closure includes the effects of cloud droplet sedimentation. To achieve this agreement, parameters in the MLM entrainment closure and the drizzle parameterization must be retuned to match the LES. This is because the LES advection scheme and microphysical parameterization significantly bias the entrainment rate and precipitation profile compared to observational best guesses. Before this modification, the MLM simulates more liquid water path and much more drizzle at a given droplet concentration than the LES and is more sensitive to droplet concentration, even undergoing a drizzle-induced boundary layer collapse at low droplet concentrations. After this modification, both models predict a comparable decrease of cloud liquid water path as droplet concentration increases, cancelling 30–50% of the Twomey effect for our case. The agreement breaks down at the lowest simulated droplet concentrations, for which the boundary layer in the LES is not well mixed. Our results highlight issues with both types of model. Potential LES biases due to inadequate resolution, subgrid mixing and parameterized microphysics must be carefully considered when trying to make a quantitative inference of the second indirect effect from an LES of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. On the other hand, even slight internal decoupling of the boundary layer invalidates the central assumption of an MLM, substantially limiting the range of conditions that MLM-predicted sensitivities to droplet concentration are meaningful.
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