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A Novel Biomaterial for Cartilage Repair Generated by Self-Assembly: Creation of a Self-Organized Articular Cartilage-Like Tissue  [PDF]
Kazuo Yudoh, Rie Karasawa
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.32017
Abstract: Recently, attention has been drawn to tissue engineering and other novel techniques aimed at reconstruction of the joint. Regarding articular cartilage tissue engineering, three-dimensional materials created in vitro by cultivation of autologous chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells with a collagen gel have been implanted to replace defective parts of the articular cartilage in limited cases with the diseases such as trauma or arthritis. However, several passages of chondrocyte culture are required to obtain a sufficient number of cells for tissue engineering. Additionally, several other problems arise including dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during cell culture, which need to be solved from a viewpoint of cellular resources. The purpose of our study is to create a novel biomaterial possessing functions and structures comparable to native hyaline articular cartilage by utilizing the physicochemical properties of the cartilage matrix components themselves, in other words, employing a self-assembly technique instead of using chondrocytes to produce cartilage matrices eventually leading to articular cartilage tissue formation. We verified the conditions and accuracy of the self-organization process and analyzed the resulting micro structure using electron beam microscopy in order to study the technique involved in the self-organization which would be applicable to creation of cartilage-like tissue. We demonstrated that self-assembly of several cartilage components including type II collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid could construct self-assembled cartilage-like tissues characterized by nano composite structures comparable to human articular cartilage and by low friction coefficients as small as those of native cartilage.
Successful Treatment of PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis) Syndrome with Shinbuto*  [PDF]
Yuichirou Tsuji, Chitose Karasawa
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.520160
Abstract: Periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is an autoimmune disorder and the most common disorder characterized by periodic fever in children. A male patient has been followed up from 11 months to 10 years of age because of repeated high fever. We prescribed antifebriles and antibiotics for each febrile episode without a beneficial effect to him each time. He required several days of rest at home to recover from each episode. During his most recent febrile episode at 10 years of age, we prescribed 5.0 g of shinbuto (TJ-30; Tsumura Co., Tokyo, Japan). His fever resolved the next day and he was able to attend school. His growth and development are normal. Shinbuto had a therapeutic effect in this patient with PFAPA syndrome and may be useful in this condition.
Serum Antibody Titers of Measles and Rubella among Japanese Children  [PDF]
Yuichirou Tsuji, Chitose Karasawa
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2015.54017
Abstract: Background: The rubella outbreak in Japan has not yet been eliminated. In particular, an outbreak of congenital rubella syndrome has recently become a public health problem in Japan. The World Health Organization has set an elimination target of 2015 for measles in Japan. However, an outbreak of measles occurred in Japan between 2007 and 2008. Starting in April 2006, the measles and rubella vaccines were administered twice, once when a child reached 1 year old and once when the child was 5 - 6 years old (just before starting elementary school). Between October of 1978 and 2006, children were vaccinated only once for measles and rubella. Design: During the study enrollment period (2011-2013), the serum antibody titers of measles and rubella were measured in pediatric patients (n = 163) in the Tokyo Takanawa Hospital. Results: The prevalence rates of the two diseases indicated that only one vaccination was insufficient to protect against infection. Conclusions: Our studies have determined that it was important to vaccinate children twice for measles and rubella during early infancy.
Ponotus shirahamensis, a new genus and species of raninid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Miocene Tanabe Group of Japan
Karasawa, Hiroaki;Ohara, Masaaki;
Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana , 2009,
Abstract: ponotus shirahamensis, a new genus and species of the crab family raninidae (decapoda: brachyura) is described from the lowermost middle miocene tanabe group in wakayama prefecture of central japan. ponotus shirahamensis represents the second record for the family raninidae from the miocene deposits of japan. ponotus is most similar to notopus, an extant monotypic genus of the notopodinae, but is characterized by the absence of a spinose transverse ridge between the hepatic spines on the dorsal carapace.
New nephropid and glypheid lobsters from the Mesozoic of Japan
Hisayoshi, Kato;Hiroaki, Karasawa;
Revista mexicana de ciencias geológicas , 2006,
Abstract: a new nephropid lobster, hoploparia kamimurai new species is described from the lower cretaceous ishido formation (barremian), gunma prefecture, central japan. two species of glypheid lobsters, glyphea yoshiakii new species and glyphea sp. were obtained from the lower cretaceous arida formation (barremian), wakayama prefecture, southwest japan and the uppermost jurassic to lowermost cretaceous mitarai formation (tithonian-berriasian), gifu prefecture, central japan, respectively. these species are the first records of the fossil glypheidae from japan.
Conservation-Law-Induced Quantum Limits for Physical Realizations of the Quantum NOT Gate
Tokishiro Karasawa,Masanao Ozawa
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032324
Abstract: In recent investigations, it has been found that conservation laws generally lead to precision limits on quantum computing. Lower bounds of the error probability have been obtained for various logic operations from the commutation relation between the noise operator and the conserved quantity or from the recently developed universal uncertainty principle for the noise-disturbance trade-off in general measurements. However, the problem of obtaining the precision limit to realizing the quantum NOT gate has eluded a solution from these approaches. Here, we develop a new method for this problem based on analyzing the trace distance between the output state from the realization under consideration and the one from the ideal gate. Using the mathematical apparatus of orthogonal polynomials, we obtain a general lower bound on the error probability for the realization of the quantum NOT gate in terms of the number of qubits in the control system under the conservation of the total angular momentum of the computational qubit plus the the control system along the direction used to encode the computational basis. The lower bound turns out to be more stringent than one might expect from previous results. The new method is expected to lead to more accurate estimates for physical realizations of various types of quantum computations under conservation laws, and to contribute to related problems such as the accuracy of programmable quantum processors.
Channel Estimation Theory of Low-Noise Multiple Parameters:Attainablity Problem of the Cram{é}r-Rao Bounds
Masahiro Hotta,Tokishiro Karasawa
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.012332
Abstract: For decoherence processes induced by weak interactions with the environment, a general quantum channel with one noise parameter has been formulated. This channel is called low-noise channel and very useful for investigating the parameter estimation in the leading order. In this paper, we formulate the low-noise channel with multiple unknown parameters in order to address the simultaneous achievability of the Cram{\'e}r-Rao bound for the parameters estimation. In general, the simultaneous achievement of the Cram{\'e}r-Rao bound for multi-parameter estimations suffers from non-commutativity of optimal measurements for respective parameters. However, with certain exceptions, we show that the Cram{\'e}r-Rao bound for output states of dissipative low-noise channels can be always attained in the first order of the parameters as long as D \leq N-1, where D and N denote the number of the parameters and the dimension of the system, respectively. This condition is replaced by D \leq N^{2}-1 if it is allowed to set the entanglement with ancilla systems in its input state and to perform the non-local measurement on the composite system.
Variational approach to the inhomogeneous chiral phase in quark matter
S. Karasawa,T. Tatsumi
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The inhomogeneous chiral phase is discussed in QCD at finite temperature and/or density. We study the phase diagram on the density-temperature plane by taking into account the effect of the current mass by a variational method. It is demonstrated that our framework well describes the inhomogeneous phase over the whole phase region.
Long-Term Outcome of 102 Cases of Lupus Nephritis: A Single-Center Cohort Study in Japan  [PDF]
Mio Kodama, Keiko Uchida, Kazunori Karasawa, Takahito Moriyama, Kosaku Nitta
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.812062
Abstract: Background: The mortality rate is higher in SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) than in those without nephropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the factors affecting the long-term renal outcome in 102 patients with LN. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Logistic regression analysis was used in a model to determine how independent variables predicted the outcome. The survival analysis was based on the Kaplan-Meier curve with subjects censored for death. Results: The 15-year survival rate was 93.5%, and the renal function non-deterioration rate was 78.3%. No influence of individual types of immunosuppressant drugs used was found on the renal function deterioration rate. In this study, the results of analysis identified only daily urinary protein excretion level as having any significant effect on the risk of progression of LN to renal failure. Conclusions: These results suggest that remission induction therapy and maintenance therapy focused on long-term preservation of renal function need to be selected for LN patients with a high daily urinary protein value at the start of treatment and for LN patients who fail to show any reduction of the daily urinary protein excretion level to 0.5 g or less at one year after the biopsy.
Agaro-Oligosaccharides Prevent Myostatin Hyperexpression and Myosin Heavy Chain Protein Degradation in C2C12 Myotubes Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α  [PDF]
Ikuya Shirai, Takehiko Sakai, Katsuhiro Shiba, Yuji Uzuhashi, Koji Karasawa
CellBio (CellBio) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2018.72003
Abstract: Myostatin is a major factor involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle protein mass. High myostatin levels have been associated with an increase in myotube shrinkage. Enhanced myostatin expression is caused by pro-catabolic reactions involving compounds such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The present study investigated the effects of agaro-oligosaccharides (AOSs) on hypercatabolism of myotubes exposed to TNF-α. C2C12 myotubes exposed to TNF-α in the presence or absence of AOSs. Myotube exposure to TNF-α resulted in a reduction in the amount of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein and a decrease in myotube diameter, which was associated with increased myostatin mRNA expression. AOSs prevented TNF-α-induced MyHC protein loss and restored normal myostatin mRNA levels, with agarobiose and agarotetraose effectively suppressing the hyperexpression of the mRNA. In addition, expression levels of the known myostatin inhibitors, latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 3 (Ltbp3) and growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (Gasp1) mRNAs, decreased more in TNF-α-induced myotubes than in the TNF-α-free control, possibly resulting in myostatin upregulation. However, AOSs restored nearly normal expression levels of Ltbp3 and Gasp1 mRNA, potentially suppressing myostatin expression. These findings suggest that AOSs could prevent myotube shrinkage induced by TNF-α.
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