oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 842 matches for " Kara; McPake "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /842
Display every page Item
International flow of Zambian nurses
Naomi Hamada, Jill Maben, Barbara McPake, Kara Hanson
Human Resources for Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-7-83
Abstract: Prior to 2000, South Africa was the most important destination for Zambian registered nurses. In 2000, new destination countries, such as the United Kingdom, became available, resulting in a substantial increase in migration from Zambia. This is attributable to the policy of active recruitment by the United Kingdom's National Health Service and Zambia's policy of offering Voluntary Separation Packages: early retirement lump-sum payments promoted by the government, which nurses used towards migration costs.The dramatic decline in migration to the United Kingdom since 2004 is likely to be due to increased difficulties in obtaining United Kingdom registration and work permits. Despite smaller numbers, enrolled nurses are also leaving Zambia for other destination countries, a significant new development.This paper stresses the need for nurse managers and policy-makers to pay more attention to these wider nurse migration trends in Zambia, and argues that the focus of any migration strategy should be on how to retain a motivated workforce through improving working conditions and policy initiatives to encourage nurses to stay within the public sector.Nurses and midwives constitute the largest of the health professional groups in Zambia and other low-income countries. Therefore it is the attrition and movement of such workers, particularly through migration, that can cripple a health system in sub-Saharan African countries.There has been a considerable volume of analysis and commentary on migration trends of health workers from Africa to the United Kingdom and other well-resourced countries in the early 2000s, but little detailed mapping and analysis with data from African 'sending' countries. Since that period, it is clear that the situation has changed significantly (Fig 1), with dramatic increases in nurse migration from 2000 to 2004.This paper addresses the factors involved in trends both before and after that change, using a detailed analysis of data from Zambia, 1991-
What can be done about the private health sector in low-income countries?
Mills,Anne; Brugha,Ruairi; Hanson,Kara; McPake,Barbara;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000400012
Abstract: a very large private health sector exists in low-income countries. it consists of a great variety of providers and is used by a wide cross-section of the population. there are substantial concerns about the quality of care given, especially at the more informal end of the range of providers. this is particularly true for diseases of public health importance such as tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted infections. how can the activities of the private sector in these countries be influenced so that they help to meet national health objectives? although the evidence base is not good, there is a fair amount of information on the types of intervention that are most successful in directly influencing the behaviour of providers and on what might be the necessary conditions for success. there is much less evidence, however, of effective approaches to interventions on the demand side and policies that involve strengthening the purchasing and regulatory roles of governments.
What can be done about the private health sector in low-income countries?
Mills Anne,Brugha Ruairi,Hanson Kara,McPake Barbara
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: A very large private health sector exists in low-income countries. It consists of a great variety of providers and is used by a wide cross-section of the population. There are substantial concerns about the quality of care given, especially at the more informal end of the range of providers. This is particularly true for diseases of public health importance such as tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted infections. How can the activities of the private sector in these countries be influenced so that they help to meet national health objectives? Although the evidence base is not good, there is a fair amount of information on the types of intervention that are most successful in directly influencing the behaviour of providers and on what might be the necessary conditions for success. There is much less evidence, however, of effective approaches to interventions on the demand side and policies that involve strengthening the purchasing and regulatory roles of governments.
What can we learn from international comparisons of health systems and health system reform?
McPake,Barbara; Mills,Anne;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000600013
Abstract: most commonly, lessons derived from comparisons of international health sector reform can only be generalized in a limited way to similar countries. however, there is little guidance as to what constitutes "similarity" in this respect. we propose that a framework for assessing similarity could be derived from the performance of individual policies in different contexts, and from the cause and effect processes related to the policies. we demonstrate this process by considering research evidence in the "public-private mix", and propose variables for an initial framework that we believe determine private involvement in the public health sector. the most influential model of public leadership places the private role in a contracting framework. research in countries that have adopted this model suggests an additional list of variables to add to the framework. the variables can be grouped under the headings "demand factors", "supply factors", and "strength of the public sector". these illustrate the nature of a framework that could emerge, and which would help countries aiming to learn from international experience.
Global Health Initiatives and aid effectiveness: insights from a Ugandan case study
Valeria Oliveira Cruz, Barbara McPake
Globalization and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-7-20
Abstract: The study adopted a qualitative and case study approach to investigate the governance of aid transactions in Uganda. Data sources included documentary review, in-depth and semi-structured interviews and observation of meetings. Agency theory guided the conceptual framework of the study.The Ugandan government had a stated preference for donor funding to be channelled through the general or sectoral budgets. Despite this preference, two large GHIs opted to allocate resources and deliver activities through projects with a disease-specific approach. The mixed motives of contributor country governments, recipient country governments and GHI executives produced incentive regimes in conflict between different aid mechanisms.Notwithstanding attempts to align and harmonize donor activities, the interests and motives of the various actors (GHIs and different parts of the government) undermine such efforts.Over the past decade, the international aid community has shown greater concern with improving aid effectiveness. In spite of historical gains in health status, challenges still abounded: in 1998, the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Africa was still 91 per thousand, more than four times the rate for Europe [1]; in 2006, over 3.3 billion people worldwide were at risk of malaria transmission contributing to approximately 1 million deaths each year [2]; and the estimated number of individuals living with HIV/AIDS by 2001 in Sub-Saharan Africa was 28.5 million. The failure to effectively deliver available interventions largely accounts for the excess mortality among the poor [3]. The international aid community thus sought for new "ways of doing business" that could tackle the high burden of disease in the low-income world by expanding access to interventions such as vaccines, insecticide treated bed nets, and anti-retroviral therapy. A range of targets, agreements, and partnerships emerged. Among these were the Roll Back Malaria Partnership established in 1998, the Millennium De
Two-tier charging in Maputo Central Hospital: Costs, revenues and effects on equity of access to hospital services
Barbara McPake, Charles Hongoro, Giuliano Russo
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-143
Abstract: A combination of step-down and bottom-up costing strategies were used to calculate recurrent as well as capital expenses, apportion them to identified cost centres and link costs to selected output measures.The results show that cost differences between main hospital and clinic are marked and significant, with the Special Clinic's cost per patient and cost per outpatient visit respectively over four times and over thirteen times their equivalent in the main hospital.While the main hospital cost structure appeared in line with those from similar studies, salary expenditures were found to drive costs in the Special Clinic (73% of total), where capital and drug costs were surprisingly low (2 and 4% respectively). We attributed low capital and drug costs to underestimation by our study owing to difficulties in attributing the use of shared resources and to the Special Clinic's outsourcing policy. The large staff expenditure would be explained by higher physician time commitment, economic rents and subsidies to hospital staff. On the whole it was observed that: (a) the flow of capital and human resources was not fully captured by the financial systems in place and stayed largely unaccounted for; (b) because of the little consideration given to capital costs, the main hospital is more likely to be subsidising its Special Clinic operations, rather than the other way around.We conclude that the observed lack of transparency may create scope for an inequitable cross subsidy of private customers by public resources.'Private', 'high-cost' and 'special' clinics and wards are increasingly common features of public hospitals in Africa and other parts of the world [1,2]. These services are targeted at middle and upper class groups who are prepared to pay higher charges for services with higher levels of amenity (such as hotel services which are not considered clinically relevant), or in some cases for choice of doctor [1]. A common rationale for the development of such services is
The double burden of human resource and HIV crises: a case study of Malawi
David McCoy, Barbara McPake, Victor Mwapasa
Human Resources for Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-6-16
Abstract: This paper reviews the continent-wide situation with respect to this double burden before considering the case of Malawi in more detail. In Malawi, there has been significant concurrent investment in both an Emergency Human Resource Programme and an antiretroviral therapy programme which was treating 60,000 people by the end of 2006. Both areas of synergy and conflict have arisen, as the two programmes have been implemented. These highlight important issues for programme planners and managers to address and emphasize that planning for the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy while simultaneously strengthening health systems and the human resource situation requires prioritization among compelling cases for support, and time (not just resources).Two crises dominate the health sectors of sub-Saharan countries: those of human resources and of HIV. In principle, both these crises magnify each other. HIV places a significant additional load on the health workforce and contributes to attrition from it through illness, caring for family members who have developed AIDS and death. And the impact of the HIV crisis is accentuated because health workers are unavailable to implement anti-HIV interventions.A particular source of recent concern has been the impact on workforce distribution of increased levels of support for HIV/AIDS programmes and especially treatment. This paper seeks to explore this interaction in more detail. It reviews the continent-wide distribution of the two phenomena and initial evidence of the impact of expanded treatment programmes, before looking in depth at the case of Malawi, a country with one of the lowest densities of human resources for health and one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV.This paper is based on data derived from published literature; the global atlas of the health workforce, a database compiled by the World Health Organisation (WHO); and grey literature, particularly concerning Malawi. In addition, one of the authors (DM) was part
Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Supplied via Matrix Converter for Wind Energy Conversion System  [PDF]
Zakaria Kara, Kamel Barra
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2014.33012
Abstract:

The present paper deals with the modeling and control of Wind Energy Conversion System WECS based Doubly Fed Induction Generator DFIG using the slip energy recovery principle. The proposed drive system uses a Matrix Converter (MC) to transfer the slip energy of the rotor into the mains instead of using cascaded ac-dc-ac converter whilst the stator side is fixed to the grid. Operation at both sub-synchronous and super-synchronous regions is possible with the proposed drive system. The different level control strategies for maximum power point tracking and active-reactive power are discussed. Simulation results of the proposed doubly fed induction generator drive system show the good performance of the control system strategy for both transient and steadystate conditions.

#Occupywallstreet: An Analysis of Twitter Usage during a Protest Movement  [PDF]
Zuoming Wang, Kara Caskey
Social Networking (SN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2016.54011
Abstract: In 2011, the Occupy Wall Street movement made history as one of the largest grassroots protest events in the United States. Members made frequent use of social media tools, like Twitter, to share information and mobilize participants. This study uses content analysis to examine the way that Twitter is used to incite, organize, and perpetuate protest movements. 1500 tweets in total were coded for content and linguistic features to provide insight into how Twitter is used to achieve different goals surrounding protest movements, the tonality of the tweets, and the purpose of distributed messages. Our findings indicate that Twitter is a tool primarily used for sharing objective, logistical information, along with opinions, to create a unified community and mobilize individuals to participate in a physical space of protest.
Measuring the Sustainability of Cities in Turkey with the Analytic Hierarchy Process  [PDF]
Ya?mur Kara
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.74025
Abstract: The objective of this study is to compare and rank the 81 provinces of Turkey by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in terms of urban sustainability. With this aim, economic, social and environmental sustainability indicators are used. The results indicate that the most sustainable alternative out of 81 is the Eskisehir province. It is followed by ?anakkale, Bursa, ?zmir, Bilecik, Giresun, Edirne, Ankara, Rize and Manisa. On the other hand, Diyarbakir, Mardin, Mu?, Kars, Bitlis, Yozgat, Sanliurfa, Van, and Batman are less sustainable cities, which are located in the eastern part of the country. Furthermore, the sustainability scores of provinces indicate the development gap between the east and the west of the country.
Page 1 /842
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.