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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 422344 matches for " Kanury V. S. Rao "
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Integration of a Phosphatase Cascade with the MAP Kinase Pathway provides for a Novel Signal Processing Function
Virendra K. Chaudhri,Dhiraj Kumar,Manjari Misra,Raina Dua,Kanury V. S. Rao
Quantitative Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.055863
Abstract: We mathematically modeled the receptor-activated MAP kinase signaling by incorporating the regulation through cellular phosphatases. Activation induced the alignment of a phosphatase cascade in parallel with the MAP kinase pathway. A novel regulatory motif was thus generated, providing for the combinatorial control of each MAPK intermediate. This ensured a non-linear mode of signal transmission with the output being shaped by the balance between the strength of input signal, and the activity gradient along the phosphatase axis. Shifts in this balance yielded modulations in topology of the motif, thereby expanding the repertoire of output responses. Thus we identify an added dimension to signal processing, wherein the output response to an external stimulus is additionally filtered through indicators that define the phenotypic status of the cell.
Identification of Host-Dependent Survival Factors for Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis through an siRNA Screen
Shilpi Jayaswal,Md. Azhar Kamal,Raina Dua,Shashank Gupta,Tanmay Majumdar,Gobardhan Das,Dhiraj Kumar ,Kanury V. S. Rao
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000839
Abstract: The stable infection of host macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involves, and depends on, the attenuation of the diverse microbicidal responses mounted by the host cell. This is primarily achieved through targeted perturbations of the host cellular signaling machinery. Therefore, in view of the dependency of the pathogen on host molecules for its intracellular survival, we wanted to test whether targeting such factors could provide an alternate route for the therapeutic management of tuberculosis. To first identify components of the host signaling machinery that regulate intracellular survival of Mtb, we performed an siRNA screen against all known kinases and phosphatases in murine macrophages infected with the virulent strain, H37Rv. Several validated targets could be identified by this method where silencing led either to a significant decrease, or enhancement in the intracellular mycobacterial load. To further resolve the functional relevance of these targets, we also screened against these identified targets in cells infected with different strains of multiple drug-resistant mycobacteria which differed in terms of their intracellular growth properties. The results obtained subsequently allowed us to filter the core set of host regulatory molecules that functioned independently of the phenotypic variations exhibited by the pathogen. Then, using a combination of both in vitro and in vivo experimentation, we could demonstrate that at least some of these host factors provide attractive targets for anti-TB drug development. These results provide a “proof-of-concept” demonstration that targeting host factors subverted by intracellular Mtb provides an attractive and feasible strategy for the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Importantly, our findings also emphasize the advantage of such an approach by establishing its equal applicability to infections with Mtb strains exhibiting a range of phenotypic diversifications, including multiple drug-resistance. Thus the host factors identified here may potentially be exploited for the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Expressed by Regulating Metabolic Thresholds of the Host Macrophage
Parul Mehrotra equal contributor,Shilpa V. Jamwal equal contributor,Najmuddin Saquib,Neeraj Sinha,Zaved Siddiqui,Venkatasamy Manivel,Samrat Chatterjee,Kanury V. S. Rao
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004265
Abstract: The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen derives from its facile adaptation to the intracellular milieu of human macrophages. To explore this process, we asked whether adaptation also required interference with the metabolic machinery of the host cell. Temporal profiling of the metabolic flux, in cells infected with differently virulent mycobacterial strains, confirmed that this was indeed the case. Subsequent analysis identified the core subset of host reactions that were targeted. It also elucidated that the goal of regulation was to integrate pathways facilitating macrophage survival, with those promoting mycobacterial sustenance. Intriguingly, this synthesis then provided an axis where both host- and pathogen-derived factors converged to define determinants of pathogenicity. Consequently, whereas the requirement for macrophage survival sensitized TB susceptibility to the glycemic status of the individual, mediation by pathogen ensured that the virulence properties of the infecting strain also contributed towards the resulting pathology.
Immunomodulatory role of an Ayurvedic formulation on imbalanced immune-metabolics during inflammatory responses of obesity and pre-diabetic disease
Kamiya Tikoo,Shashank Mishr,V. Manivel,Kanury VS Rao,Parul Tripathi,Sachin Sharma
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Obesity and related type 2 diabetes are associated with a low level chronic inflammatory state with disease status increasing at epidemic proportions worldwide. It is now universally accepted that the underlying immune-inflammatory responses mediated within the adipose tissue in obesity are central to the development of disease. Once initiated, chronic inflammation associated with obesity leads to the modulation of immune cell function. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effect of an ayurvedic formulation (named as Kal-1, an abbreviation derived from the procuring source) on diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes using C57BL/6J mice. The study was planned into two groups using obese and pre-diabetic mouse model. The mice were fed on high-fat with increased diet and, different amounts (5, 20 and 75 {\mu}g) of Kal-1 were given with disease progression for 21 weeks in first group whereas mice were first put on the same diet for 21 weeks and then treated with same amounts of Kal-1. A significant reduction in body weight and fat pads, fasting blood glucose levels, insulin levels and biochemical parameters like triglycerides and cholesterol were observed in obese and diabetic mice+Kal-1 than control (lean) mice fed on low fat diet, though the optimum amounts of Kal-1 were 20 and 75 {\mu}g in first and second group respectively. A noteworthy immunological correction in important readouts viz. resistin, leptin, HMW adiponection and an array of pro- & anti-cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-1{\alpha}, IL-1{\beta}, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-{\alpha} and MCP-1) was also observed in both the groups with the mentioned amount of Kal-1. We conclude that Kal-1 has immunomodulatory potential for diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
Software Selection in Manufacturing Industries Using a Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making Method, PROMETHEE  [PDF]
R. V. RAO, T. S. RAJESH
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2009.13023
Abstract: This paper presents an effective decision making framework for software selection in manufacturing industries using a multiple criteria decision making method, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE). The method is improved in the present work by integrating with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is introduced to handle the imprecision of the human decision making process. The proposed decision making framework is practical for ranking competing software products in terms of their overall performance with respect to multiple criteria. An example is included to illustrate the approach.
Mineralogy and Geochemistry of A Low Grade Iron Ore Sample from Bellary-Hospet Sector, India and Their Implications on Beneficiation  [PDF]
D. S. Rao, T. V. Vijaya Kumar, S. Subba Rao, S. Prabhakar, G. Bhaskar Raju
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.82011
Abstract: The gradual depletion of high-grade iron ores has necessitated the exploitation of low/off grade iron ore reserves of India. The role of geochemical and mineralogical characterization is paramount to arrive at the process flow sheet development for such complex ores. Detailed studies were conducted on iron ores of Bellary-Hospet sector using microscope, XRD, TG, and EPMA techniques. The results indicate that hematite is the major iron oxide mineral with minor amounts of goethite, magnetite, martite and limonite with quartz and clay as major gangue. There is no evidence of the presence of any iron silicate and iron carbonate minerals. Trace amounts of pyrite were observed under the microscope and is the only iron sulphide phase. Microscopic studies also indicated that most of the quartz grains are present as inclusions within the hematite and magnetite grains. XRD studies revealed hematite as the major mineral with subordinate amounts of goethite, quartz and kaolinite confirming to the microscopic findings. Qualitative mapping and quantitative EPMA studies on these ores indicated the presence of gibbsite as the only alumina bearing phase and apatite as phosphorous bearing mineral. Traces of alumina, present as solid solution in the iron oxide minerals, has also contributed Al2O3 to the ores. Electron microscopic studies revealed that gibbsite grains are in the size range of 10 to 50 microns and are intimately and intricately associated with the iron oxide phases. Major elemental analyses of 47 representative iron ore samples of various types were analyzed to deduce the source of silica and alumina’s contributing phases in the ore and their interrelationships. The geochemistry data revealed negative correlation of Fe2O3 with silica and alumina thus indicating there is no iron silicate phase as well as alumina contribution from iron oxide minerals in the form of solid solution is insignificant. Positive correlation of silica with alumina indicates that the clay is the major contributing mineral for both the silica and alumina phase and presence of gibbsite. The role of gangue minerals and the interrelationship of silica, alumina and iron oxide, with reference to beneficiation are discussed. Jigs and heavy media cyclones for this type of ores can be used but at the cost of poor yield because of complex nature of alumina distribution. As long as alumina and silica mineralization is not too fine and the ore composed of magnetite/hematite with coarse grained quartz, magnetic route is the most effective. Since the
Satellite Technology Utilization for Rural and Urban India
Pal S,Rao V
IETE Technical Review , 2007,
Abstract: Communication capabilities in various forms provided by the modern spacecraft are bridging the gap between modernized cities and backward rural villages. The remote sensing satellites are equally helping rural India by providing useful information to increase farm yield, fish catching and also helping to save lot of lives by disaster warning and weather forecasting. This paper describes the utilization of the satellite technology in various forms for Indian masses particularly rural India.
Wind Motions around the Tropical Cirrus Using Simultaneous Radar and Lidar Observations over Gadanki (13.45°N, 79.18°E), India  [PDF]
C. Dhananjaya Rao, M. Arunachalam Srinivasan, M. Krishnaiah, Y. Bhavani Kumar, S. V. B. Rao
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.511103
Abstract: The present study describes variation of peak linear depolarization ratio (LDR) with wind around the cloud altitude using simultaneous observation of winds and cirrus cloud for the first time using Indian MST radar and polarization lidar co-located over a low latitude station Gadanki (13.7°N and 79.2°E). Three different cases of passage of the cirrus at different altitudes are noticed, one during a North-East monsoon day and other two during South-West monsoon days. The zonal wind below the cloud height has shown similar variation with LDR during 02 November 2006 and the meridional wind within the cloud height during 25 July 2007 and 08 June 2006 has shown opposite variation with LDR. Even though there is a significant increase in zonal wind due to the existence of tropical easterly jet (TEJ) above cloud height during 25 July 2007 and 08 June 2006, also, the vertical wind is found to be continuously varying during 25 July 2007 and it is upward dominant in the initial stage and is mostly downward in the later stage of observation on 08 June 2006, there is a slight descent in cloud altitude only during 25 July 2007. Thus, the wind above the cloud height alone may not affect the ascent/descent of the cloud top altitude. The potential temperature gradient is high within the cloud heights when the cirrus present near the cold point tropopause indicates the maximum air-mass mixing near the tropopause.
Studies on the Determination of Compressive Strengths of Different Grades of Rice Husk Ash—An Ecofriendly Concrete  [PDF]
Patnaikuni Chandan Kumar, Nutulapati V. S. Venugopal, Palli Malleswara Rao
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.44039
Abstract:

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Concrete is an eco friendly concrete and has evolved as an innovative technology, capable of achieving the status of being an outstanding advancement in the sphere of concrete technology. The utilization of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) will reduce the dumping of rice husk as well as reduce the construction cost. In this communication investigations for the determination of residual compressive strength of M30 & 40 grades of RHA concretes exposed at different temperatures were carried. Almost all specimens of M30 & 40 grades of RHA concrete and normal concrete exhibited zero strength at a temperature of 1000°C. It shows that concrete cannot withstand a temperature of 1000°C and above. It was also concluded that compressive strength of RHA concrete was higher at °emperature below 500°C and decreases above 500°C.

GPS-Prot: A web-based visualization platform for integrating host-pathogen interaction data
Marie E Fahey, Melanie J Bennett, Cathal Mahon, Stefanie J?ger, Lars Pache, Dhiraj Kumar, Alex Shapiro, Kanury Rao, Sumit K Chanda, Charles S Craik, Alan D Frankel, Nevan J Krogan
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-298
Abstract: We have developed a web-based platform, termed GPS-Prot http://www.gpsprot.org webcite, that allows for facile integration of different HIV interaction data types as well as inclusion of interactions between human proteins derived from publicly-available databases, including MINT, BioGRID and HPRD. The software has the ability to group proteins into functional modules or protein complexes, generating more intuitive network representations and also allows for the uploading of user-generated data.GPS-Prot is a software tool that allows users to easily create comprehensive and integrated HIV-host networks. A major advantage of this platform compared to other visualization tools is its web-based format, which requires no software installation or data downloads. GPS-Prot allows novice users to quickly generate networks that combine both genetic and protein-protein interactions between HIV and its human host into a single representation. Ultimately, the platform is extendable to other host-pathogen systems.The application of high-throughput, unbiased, "systems" approaches to study host-pathogen relationships is facilitating a shift in focus from the pathogen to the response of the host during infection. A more global view of the physical, genetic and functional interactions that occur during infection will provide a deeper insight into the regulatory mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and may eventually lead to new cellular targets for therapeutic intervention.Currently, the vast majority of host-pathogen physical interaction data involves HIV, for which a large amount of physical binding information has historically been available, mostly from small-scale, hypothesis-driven experiments [1]. For example, the HIV-1 Human Protein Interaction Database (HHPID) maintained by NIAID contains over 2500 functional connections between individual and human proteins observed over 25 years of research, approximately 30% of which are classified as physical binding interactions [2]. An
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