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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 334 matches for " Kamath Ratnakar "
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A clinical and mycological study of onychomycosis in HIV infection
Surjushe Amar,Kamath Ratnakar,Oberai Chetan,Saple Dattatray
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Onychomycosis is one of the early manifestations of HIV infection with a prevalence of 15-40%. Multiple nail involvement, isolation of both common and rare species, and resistance to treatment are the characteristics of onychomycosis in HIV. Aim: To study the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of onychomycosis in HIV-infected individuals and to identify the various causative fungi microbiologically. Methods: A total of 250 HIV infected patients, diagnosed by ELISA, were screened for nail involvement; of which 60 patients i.e., 40 males and 20 females, who had clinically suspected untreated fungal infection were included in this study. Results: Of the 60 respondents, 34 (56.66%) were from the 31-40 years age group. Amongst the 40 males, there were 20 manual laborers and 14 farmers; while 18 of 20 females were housewives. Toenail involvement was seen in 38 patients (63.33%), fingernail in 12 patients (20%) while 10 (16.66%) patients had involvement of both. Twenty eight (46.66%) patients gave history of some trauma, 6 (10%) had diabetes mellitus, and only 1 patient (1.66%) had history of peripheral vascular disease. Nineteen (31.66%) patients had associated tinea pedis, 5 (8.33%) had tinea manuum, 10 (16.66%) had tinea corporis and 7 (11.66%) had tinea cruris. Twenty one (35%) respondents had distal and lateral superficial onychomycosis (DLSO), 5 (8.33%) had proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO), 1 (1.66%) had superficial white onychomycosis (SWO), while 33 (55%) had total dystrophic onychomycosis (TDO). Fungal elements were demonstrated by KOH mount in 49 patients (81.66%) and growth was seen in 32 (53.33%) cultures. Dermatophytes were isolated in 13 (21.66%) and nondermatophytic molds (NDM) in 19 (31.66%). Out of the 13 positive dermatophyte cultures, Trichophyton rubrum was isolated on 11 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes on 2 cultures. Of the 19 non-dermatophytic cultures, Aspergillus niger was isolated on 3 and Candida spp. on 12 while Cladosporium spp., Scytalidium hyalinum, Penicillium spp., and Gymnoascus dankaliensis on 1 each. Conclusions: Total dystrophic onychomycosis was the most common clinical type and NDM were the predominant causative organisms.
HIV and tuberculosis: Partners in crime
Maniar Janak,Kamath Ratnakar,Mandalia Sundhiya,Shah Keyur
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis is the commonest infection detected in HIV-infected individuals worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, bacteriologic and radiological spectrum of tuberculosis (TB) in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Methods: A total of 8640 HIV-infected individuals were screened for tuberculosis routinely from January 1998 to December 2003, using clinical examination, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography, sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Results: TB was detected in 8078 (93.5%) patients of whom 3393 (42%) had pulmonary, 3514 (43.5%) had extrapulmonary TB and 1171 (14.5%) had disseminated disease. One thousand two hundred thirty eight patients (36.5%) showed AFB in sputum, while 1154 (34%) showed growth on culture medium and 4174 had radiographic involvement. In 781 (67%) individuals disseminated disease coexisted with pulmonary involvement. All 8078 coinfected patients were treated with anti-TB therapy (ATT), of whom 6422 patients (79.5%) showed one or more adverse events. Gastritis was the commonest complaint followed by hepatitis and skin rashes. ATT resistance was detected in 482 individuals. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection (OI) in HIV positive patients in India, showing a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary and disseminated TB and adverse events due to ATT. Early recognition of concurrent OIs and their adequate treatment and prophylaxis is essential.
Protein deficiency and cornea
Ratnakar K
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1981,
Conjunctival and corneal peroxidases in vitamin A deficiency
Ratnakar K
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1992,
Abstract: Xerophthalmia is a commonly encountered nutritional disorder that affects the growing population of the world. Conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells contain peroxidase enzyme. In experimentally induced Vitamin A deficiency conjunctival and corneal peroxidases are markedly lowered indicating direct or indirect relation of Vitamin A to epithelial functional integrity.
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Indian English has come to be recognized as a variety of English in its own right. The process of Indianization of English had started long before Independence. Alarge number of Indian words have been assimilated into the English language. More striking forms of assimilation are those that borrow the abstract concepts of Indian Socio-Cultural phenomena and the Indian way of conceptualizing reality through the Indian language items and use them to interpret the native English speakers own predicament.Attempts have been made by number of scholars to identify the lexical borrowing and specify the circumstances in which this has happened. In this paper an attempt has been made to focus the most influential works in the field of lexical borrowing in English. It also focuses limitations of this work.
Effect of experimentally induced chronic copper toxicity on retina
Gahlot D,Ratnakar K
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1981,
Effect of maternal malnutrition and/or Vitamin-A deficiency of the development of eye in rats
Ratnakar C,Aurora A
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1979,
Ratnakar R Ghorpade
e-Journal of Dentistry , 2012,
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: It is hypothesized that a key characteristic of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is its nonlinear dynamic behaviour and that the nonlinear component changes more significantly between normal and arrhythmia conditions than the linear component. The usual statistical descriptors used in RR (R to R) interval analysis do not capture the nonlinear disposition of RR interval variability. In this paper we explore a novel approach to extract the features from nonlinear component of the RR interval signal using Teager energy operator (TEO). The key feature of Teager energy is that it models the energy of the source that generated the signal rather than the energy of the signal itself. Hence any deviations in regular rhythmic activity of the heart get reflected in the Teager energy function. The classification evaluated on MIT-BIH database, with RR interval and mean of Teager energy computed over RR interval as features, exhibits an average accuracy that exceeds 99.79%.
Comments on foucher′s flap
Kamath B
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2009,
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