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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2494 matches for " Kamal SM "
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Combination of valproate and paroxetine in mice exposed to picrotoxin
Kamal SM
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S31050
Abstract: mbination of valproate and paroxetine in mice exposed to picrotoxin Original Research (2615) Total Article Views Authors: Kamal SM Published Date May 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 2583 - 2589 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S31050 Received: 20 February 2012 Accepted: 12 March 2012 Published: 23 May 2012 Sahar M Kamal Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ain-Shams, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The frequent coexistence of depression in epileptic patients raises the issue of simultaneous use of antidepressants along with antiepileptic drugs in the management of such cases. However, it is necessary to evaluate the safety of these antiepileptic/antidepressant drug combinations. The present study investigates the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) administered alone or in combination with the antiepileptic drug sodium valproate on chemoconvulsions induced by picrotoxin (PTX). Seizure score was recorded in vivo, and the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured in the nucleus accumbens of the tested groups of mice. The results show enhancement of seizure severity with significant reduction in GABA levels upon PTX treatment that were reversed by its combination with sodium valproate. On the other hand, paroxetine administered in combination with sodium valproate provided significant protection against PTX-induced convulsions as well as a significant increase in GABA levels in selected brain areas. These results favor their application in management of epilepsy-depression comorbidities.
Loss of CSMD1 disrupts mammary epithelial morphogenesis
M Kamal, AM Shaaban, DL Holliday, C Toomes, V Speirs, SM Bell
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2506
Abstract: A shRNA CSMD1 MCF10A three-dimensional matrigel model was established. Moreover, functional assays were performed using shCSMD1 cell lines. CSMD1 was tested by immunohistochemistry in 275 BC samples.Loss of CSMD1 in the MCF10A three-dimensional model resulted in an increased number of acini (P = 0.001), which are also larger in size (40%, P = 0.02) and misshapen relative to the control. Although expressing a high level of active caspase 3, shCSMD1 acini failed to form lumen.Loss of CSMD1 expression caused a 56% (P = 0.001) increase in proliferation and a 44% (P = 0.0006) decrease in adhesion. shCSMD1 cells migrate much faster than control cells and showed 33% (P < 0.001) increase in invasion. These results were confirmed in two other cell lines.Loss of CSMD1 expression was identified in 79/275 (28.7%) of BC cases, which was associated with high tumour grade (P = 0.003) and low overall survival (HR = 0.607, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.91, P = 0.018). Moreover, CSMD1 is an independent predictor of overall survival (HR = 0.607, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.91, P = 0.018) [1].Loss of CSMD1 affects cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion, which lead to disruption of mammary duct formation. Loss of CSMD1 is associated with poor prognosis in BC, suggesting its use as a new prognostic biomarker.
Maternal risk factors in young Egyptian mothers of Down syndrome
RM Shawky, E Elsobky, SM Elsayed, H Kamal, Y Eein, N Akar
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: We investigated the possible maternal risk factors that may increase the incidence of Down syndrome (DS) in young Egyptian mothers (younger than 35 years) especially methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme C677T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods: The study included 200 mothers of karyotypically ascertained non-disjunction DS attending Genetics clinic, Children’s hospital, Ain Shams University (100 mothers were < 35 years and 100 mothers ≥ 35 years). 50 mothers of none-DS children served as a control group. For all cases, history was taken laying stress on: Parental ages at conception, maternal grandparent’s ages at conception of mother, DS birth order, history of oral contraceptive use 6 months before conception, genital infection, vitamin supplementation and smoking or exposure to irradiation. Results: MTHFR C677T mutational analysis was done to twenty DS mothers with ages ≤ 35 years revealed that 35% of young mothers had C677T mutation (10% had homozygous mutation and 25% had heterozygous mutation). MTHFR C677T polymorphism was found to be a possible maternal genetic risk factor for DS although statistically non-significant. Other maternal risk factors included the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) 6 months before pregnancy which was significantly higher only in DS mothers ≥ 35 years. on the other hand, parental consanguinity, maternal grandparents’ ages, the presence of genital infection and birth order did not show a significant difference between young and old mothers of DS. Conclusion: MTHFR C677T could not be considered as a maternal risk factor in young Egyptian mothers of DS. The risk effect may depend on gene-environment interaction between the genotype and dietary intake in particular folic acid consumption which should be further studied on a larger scale population including other MTHFR polymorphisms and environmental factors. Other risk factors may include the use of OCP in older mothers. Parents consanguinity, paternal age and maternal grandparents’ ages were not found to be risk factors in DS in this study.
Dressing after Dressing: Sadra’s Interpretation of Change  [PDF]
Muhammad Kamal
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31009

This paper deals with the doctrine of transubstantial change advocated by Mulla Sadra in which substances as well as accidents are thought to be in constant and gradual change. Against Aristotle’s doctrine of accidental change, Mulla Sadra argues that no stable ground can bring about change and since substance is renewable it cannot carry identity of a changing existent. Here we investigate whether identity is possible or not. If it is possible then what becomes a ground for establishing identity of changing substances.

Aliskiren Augments the Activities of Anti-Oxidant Enzymes in Liver Homogenates of DOCA Salt-Induced Hypertensive Rats  [PDF]
Sahar Kamal
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2014.22010
Abstract: Hypertension is a serious problem that is recently thought to be associated with damaging effects on target organs partially via oxidative stress. On the other hand, there is accumulating literature describing some sort of therapeutic interaction between antioxidant enzymes in vital organs and hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the possible effect of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, used in treatment of hypertension via renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), on selected anti-oxidant enzymes in hepatic homogenates in DOCA salt-induced hypertesnive albino rats. Thirty male wister albino rats were assigned randomly into 3 groups (n = 10/ group). Group 1 received no treatement and serves as control. Group 2 received 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium ip as a solvent of aliskiren, as a direct renin inhibitor (DRI). Group 3 received aliskiren 100 mg/kg/day ip for 4 weeks through gastric tube. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured every week and its mean was recorded at the end of the study. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme in RBCs lysates, activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase enzymes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), as a marker of lipid peroxidation, in hepatic homogenates were measured at the end of the study. DRI produced a marked reduction in mean SBP of hypertensive rats. It also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the activities of measured anti-oxidant enzymes while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TBARS in liver homogenates. These results indicated that renin possesses an oxidative effect in the liver in hypertensive rats. Aliskiren, in addition to its powerful anti-hypertensive effect, it could induce a great anti-oxidant effect in liver homogenates of DOCA salt-hypertensive rats.
Individual Essences in Avicenna’s Metaphysics  [PDF]
Muhammad Kamal
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.41004

Central to Aristotle’s metaphysics is the question of individuality. The individuality of each substance is explained in relation to matter because the form is universal. Avicenna, as one of the Aristotelian Neoplatonist philosophers, is not content with this explanation and proposes to establish individuality on other grounds. In this paper, I argue that in his perspective it is not the matter which determines individuality but rather the principle of existence.


Metal-Like Gravity and Its Cosmological Applications  [PDF]
Kamal Barghout
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.518211
Abstract: Modification to Newton gravitational interaction is presented. It provides an understanding of a novel universal gravitational field of particle origin that defines alternative attributes to elementary constituents of matter particles and the gravitational interactions between them. It investigates gravitational relationship between two types of mass. The model assigns Coulombic gravitational interaction to DM particles and baryons by attributing self-antigravity to both normal matter and dark matter (DM). It defines the interaction as like particles repel while unlike particles attract. Metal-like force is proposed where same type mass (baryons) are gravitationally attracted to each other when a sea of DM particles are attracted to them and glue them together analogous to a metal bond. At close range, other dominant forces take place such as electromagnetic force. In light of this model, intergalactic self-repulsive DM particles are proposed to result in accelerating expansion of the universe. The model produces flat rotational curves for spiral galaxies and provides a physical explanation to MOND theory.
Kamal Barghout
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.64053
Abstract: In a recently published paper Metal-Like Gravity (MLG) and Its Cosmological Applications [1], it was determined that a new modification of Newtonian gravity could explain many of the cosmological mysteries such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. The theory provided a gravitational physical system and explained the flatness of the galactic rotational curves (RC). A RC fit that was identical to MOND’s RC fit for spiral galaxies was generated with α as a fitting parameter determined as equal to 1.345. In this paper I am elaborating more on the theory’s cosmological extrapolation of MOND’s critical acceleration a0. This is done by further assessing the gravitational interaction between the galactic baryonic mass and the halo-DM mass in the star-galaxy overlapping volume estimated in MLG framework interpreting a0 as only a factor induced from the reduction of the galactic luminous mass. It is asserted that MOND and MLG dynamic equations are equivalent with MOND’s form, only expressing the equation with an intermediate solution by equating the magnitudes of δ (a parameter that defines a scaled surface galactic DM-density perpendicular to the galactic radial direction in the galaxy-star halo overlapping volume) and G.
Avicenna’s Necessary Being  [PDF]
Muhammad Kamal
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.62018
Abstract: This article examines the distinctive characteristics of Avicenna’s doctrine of the Necessary Being, arguing that Avicenna developed his doctrine under the influence of Aristotle’s metaphysical thinking, but, unlike Aristotle he does not proceed from the distinction between form and matter. Instead, Avicenna has established his doctrine on essence-existence dichotomy. The article also investigates Avicenna’s view on God’s knowledge of particulars in light of his doctrine of the Necessary Being. The article begins by discussing Aristotle’s analysis of the meaning of the prime cause and its simplicity. It will then examine the simplicity of the Necessary Being in light of Aristotle’s metaphysics.
Ibn ‘Arabi and Spinoza on God and the World  [PDF]
Muhammad Kamal
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.74021
Abstract: This paper is a comparative analysis of Ibn ‘Arabi’s and Spinoza’s interpretation of God’s existence and its relation with the world. The focus will be on the ontology of these two thinkers from different intellectual traditions, elucidating their tripartite system in order to find out whether the reality of the world in its relationship to God is denied or affirmed. To vindicate the similarities between the ontological views of Ibn ‘Arabi and Spinoza this paper argues in light of God’s simplicity and causality that the existence of the world can be understood by denying and affirming its identity with God.
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