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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 188 matches for " Kales Stefanos "
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Ayurvedic lead poisoning : An under-recognized, international problem
Kales Stefanos,Saper Robert
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Extreme sacrifice: sudden cardiac death in the US Fire Service
Denise L Smith, David A Barr, Stefanos N Kales
Extreme Physiology & Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2046-7648-2-6
Importance of the occupational health
Stefanos N. Kales, M. D., MPH, FACP, FACOEM
Revista Ciencias de la Salud , 2004,
Modified Mediterranean Diet Score and Cardiovascular Risk in a North American Working Population
Justin Yang, Andrea Farioli, Maria Korre, Stefanos N. Kales
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087539
Abstract: Introduction Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in studies of Mediterranean cohorts, older subjects, and/or those with existing health conditions. No studies have examined the effects of this dietary pattern in younger working populations in the United States. We investigated the effects of Mediterranean diet adherence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, metabolic syndrome and body composition in an occupationally active, non-Mediterranean cohort. Methods A cross-sectional study in a cohort of 780 career male firefighters, ages 18 years or older, from the United States Midwest. No dietary intervention was performed. A modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was developed for assessment of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern from a previously administered life-style questionnaire that examined pre-existing dietary habits. Clinical data from fire department medical examinations were extracted and analyzed. Results Obese subjects had significantly lower mMDS, and they reported greater fast/take-out food consumption (p<0.001) and intake of sweetened drinks during meals (p = 0.002). After multivariate adjustment, higher mMDS was inversely related to risk of weight gain over the past 5 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39–0.84, p for trend across score quartiles: 0.01); as well as the presence of metabolic syndrome components (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.94, p for trend across score quartiles: 0.04). Higher HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.008) and lower LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.04) were observed in those with higher mMDS in linear regression after multivariate adjustment for age, BMI and physical activity. Conclusions In a cohort of young and active US adults, greater adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern had significant inverse associations with metabolic syndrome, LDL-cholesterol and reported weight gain, and was significantly and independently associated with higher HDL-cholesterol. Our results support the potential effectiveness of this diet in young, non-Mediterranean working cohorts, and justify future intervention studies.
Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity
Dorothee M. Baur,Costas A. Christophi,E. Francis Cook,Stefanos N. Kales
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/710903
Abstract: Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (2=0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.
Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study
Stefanos N Kales, Elpidoforos S Soteriades, Stavros G Christoudias, David C Christiani
Environmental Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-2-14
Abstract: We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998.The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556); training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3) and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8) carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9), current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4), hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1), and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6).Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.Excluding September 11, 2001, firefighting claims about 100 lives annually in the United States (U.S.) [1-3]. Thus, U.S. firefighters have one of the nation's highest occupational fatality rates [4]. Coronary heart disease (CHD) has consistently been the leading cause of "on-duty deaths" or fatalities resulting from injury or illness occurring during fire department duties. CHD accounted for about 45% of these deaths from 1977–2002 [1-3]. This compares with 22% of on-duty deaths due to CHD among police and detectives, 15% among occupational fatalities overall [2], and 11% among other emergency medical service (EMS)
Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: a cross-sectional study
Belayneh A Abejie, Xiaorong Wang, Stefanos N Kales, David C Christiani
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-5-12
Abstract: We compared pulmonary function test results between 277 chrysotile exposed workers (22% non-smokers) and 177 unexposed controls (50.3% non-smokers). Information on exposure and smoking were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Standardized spirometric and DCLO Measurement methods were utilized. CXRs were read based on ILO pneumoconiosis guidelines.Asbestos exposed subjects had significantly reduced FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and DLCO. Restricting the analysis to non-smokers, asbestos workers still had about 3% lower FEV1/FVC ratio than controls, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Among exposed workers, the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestosis further lowered FVC and DLCO but not FEV1/FVC compared to asbestos exposure without radiographic asbestosis. Additionally, smoking asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO compared to non-smoking workers.Asbestos exposure, especially when radiographic evidence of interstitial fibrosis from asbestosis is present, leads to significant decreases in FVC, FEV1 and the DLCO. However, asbestos exposure alone is not significantly associated with a reduction of the FEV1/FVC. Smoking-asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO than their non-smoking counterparts. Whether asbestos interacts with smoking additively or synergistically on DLCO needs further investigation. Similarly, further studies are needed to assess the progression and clinical significance of asbestos induced airway dysfunction.The association of a restrictive pulmonary function with interstitial lung disease is well described [1-12]. However, the results of studies examining obstructive airway impairment in asbestos- exposure are not entirely consistent. Such investigations of airway function have been conducted in animal models, clinical series, and epidemiological surveys.In 1982 Begin observed small and large airway disease in sheep with tracheal installation of high concentrations of chrysotile asbestos [13]. He further d
Elastic Stress Predictor for Stochastic Finite Element Problems  [PDF]
Drakos Stefanos
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2015.511021
Abstract: The paper presents a new algorithm of elastic stress predictor in non linear stochastic finite element method using the Generalized Polynomial Chaos. The statistical moments of strains calculated based on the displacement Polynomial Chaos expansion. To descretise the stochastic process of material the Karhunen-Loeve Expansion was used and it is presented. Using the strains and the material Karhunen-Loeve Expansion the stress components are calculated. A numerical example of shallow foundation was carried out and the results of stress and strain of the new algorithm were compared with those raised from Monte Carlo method which is treated as the exact solution. A great accuracy was presented.
Kales,D 李玲
红外 , 1989,
Kales,D 高国龙
红外 , 1993,
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