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Paridade e desenvolvimento ovariano de Anopheles albitarsis l.s. em área de agroecossistema irrigado
Kakitani,Iná; Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102000000100007
Abstract: introduction: to determine the parity, ovarian development and survival rates of anopheles albitarsis species, in order to estimate the potential of malaria transmission. methods: two populations of anopheles albitarsis a and b in an experimental farm of s. paulo state, brazil were captured during the crepuscular sunset, between 5pm and 8pm, using shannon traps. dissections were performed using polovodova's technique, and the evaluation of follicular development was according to christophers and mer's criterion. the vercruysse method was used to estimate daily survival and we applied davidson method to determine the duration of the gonotrophic cycle. results: a total of 2,612 specimens was dissected, of these, 237 of population a and 2,375 of population b. the daily survival rates were 0.5339±0.047 and 0.5566±0.015, respectively, for the populations a and b. the duration of the gonotrophic cycle for population a was 1,990 days and for population b 2,046 days. conclusions: the results help to estimate the malaria transmission potential in the region.
Paridade e desenvolvimento ovariano de Anopheles albitarsis l.s. em área de agroecossistema irrigado
Kakitani Iná,Forattini Oswaldo Paulo
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Conhecer a paridade, o desenvolvimento ovariano e a raz o de sobrevivência da espécie Anopheles albitarsis, visando a estimar o potencial de transmiss o malárica. MéTODOS: Duas popula es de Anopheles albitarsis, denominadas A e B, foram capturadas na Fazenda Experimental do Instituto Agron mico de Campinas, situada no Município de Pariquera-A u, Estado de S o Paulo. As capturas foram feitas no período crepuscular vespertino das 17h às 20h, utilizando-se armadilha tipo Shannon. As dissec es foram feitas utilizando-se a técnica de Polovodova, e a avalia o do desenvolvimento folicular segundo o critério de Christophers e Mer. Adotou-se o método de Vercrusse para se estimar a sobrevivência diária e o método de Davidson para se determinar a dura o do ciclo gonotrófico. RESULTADOS: Foram dissecados 2.612 exemplares, sendo 237 da popula o A e 2.375 da B. As sobrevivências diárias para as popula es A e B foram de 0,5339±0,047 e 0,5566±0,015, respectivamente, e a dura o do ciclo gonotrófico para a popula o A foi de 1.990 dias e para a B de 2.046 dias. CONCLUS ES: Os resultados contribuem para a avalia o do potencial de transmiss o malárica na regi o.
Paridade de Ochlerotatus scapularis em condi??es de laboratório e campo
Deus,Juliana Telles de; Kakitani,Iná;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000300020
Abstract: objective: to identify the parity status of ochlerotatus scapularis females in laboratory and field conditions. methods: field collections were carried out fortnightly using a hand-held aspirator in vale do ribeira, southeastern brazil, from april 2003 to march 2004. in laboratory, 100 ochlerotatus scapularis f1 females were obtained and followed up individually, reporting the number of blood meals, the length of gonotrophic cycle, survival and number of eggs laid. the parity status and ovarian development were observed through ovarian dissection of 90 field females for each collection and all females reared in laboratory. results: the parity status diagnoses of the 100 females reared in laboratory and dissected agreed with 55% of the oviposition data, and it was underestimated in 37% and overestimated in 2%. also in the laboratory, 106 gonotrophic cycles were completed, around 55% of females needed more than one blood meal before laying eggs. in laboratory conditions the species survival was 26 days. a total of 1,180 field females of ochlerotatus scapularis were dissected: 418 (35.4%) nulliparous, 655 (55.5%) uniparous, 46 (3.9%) biparous and 61 (5.2%) could not be evaluated. ninety field females were found in christophers and mer's phase iii-v. conclusions: the gonotrophic discordance hypothesis could be confirmed based on field and laboratory observations of ochlerotarus scapularis females.
Mechanisms of Suppression and Enhancement of Photocurrent/Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar-Cells Using Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Derivatives as Sensitizers
Yasushi Koyama,Yoshinori Kakitani,Hiroyoshi Nagae
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17022188
Abstract: The mechanisms of suppression and enhancement of photocurrent/conversion efficiency (performance) in dye-sensitized solar cells, using carotenoid and chlorophyll derivatives as sensitizers, were compared systematically. The key factor to enhance the performance was found to be how to minimize interaction among the excited-state dye-sensitizer(s). In a set of retinoic-acid (RA) and carotenoic-acid (CA) sensitizers, having n conjugated double bonds, CA7 gave rise to the highest performance, which was reduced toward RA5 and CA13. The former was ascribed to the generation of triplet and the resultant singlet-triplet annihilation reaction, while the latter, to the intrinsic electron injection efficiency. In a set of shorter polyene sensitizers having different polarizabilities, the one with the highest polarizability (the highest trend of aggregate formation) exhibited the higher performance toward the lower dye concentration and the lower light intensity, contrary to our expectation. This is ascribed to a decrease in the singlet-triplet annihilation reaction. The performance of cosensitization, by a pair of pheophorbide sensitizers without and with the central metal, Mg or Zn, was enhanced by the light absorption (complementary rather than competitive), the transition-dipole moments (orthogonal rather than parallel) and by the pathways of electron injection (energetically independent rather than interactive).
Paridade e influência do vento sobre a freqüência de Anopheles marajoara, S?o Paulo
Kakitani,Iná; Ueno,Helene Mariko; Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102003000300003
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the impact of wind velocity on the behavior of an. marajoara population and its parity. methods: collections were made bimonthly from january 1999 to february 2000 in the municipality of ilha comprida, brazil. adult mosquitoes were captured with a battery hand aspirator. mann-whitney test was applied to verify the wind impact on mosquito behavior. polovodova technique and christophers and mer's follicular development analysis were used to determine parity. results: a total of 11,833 mosquitoes were captured, including 3,072 an. marajoara specimens. the peak of activity of an. marajoara occurred from 2 to 5 am. amongst 1,006 an. marajoara females who had their ovarioles dissected, it was found 530 (52.7%) nulliparous, 432 (42.9%) uniparous, 24 (2.4%) biparous and 1 multiparous. according to christophers and mer analysis, 982 (97.6%) had their follicles in phases i and ii, 7 in phases iii and iv, and 17 in phase v. the frequency of an. marajoara was significantly lower when wind velocity was 3 km/h or more or below 3 km/h. conclusions: an. marajoara mosquitoes were more active at night. about 50% of dissected an. marajoara females were oniparous. another important finding was the high proportion of females (97.6%) with follicles in the christophers and mer's phases i and ii, suggesting the presence of gonotrophic concordance. wind velocity equal or higher than 3 km/h considerably reduced the frequency of an. marajoara.
Emergência de Aedes albopictus em recipientes artificiais
Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Iná; Ueno,Helene Mariko;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102001000500008
Abstract: objective: to estimate the potential of daily average emergence of aedes albopictus adult females. since this species is very close to aedes aegypti , although it has not been implicated in the spread of dengue in brazil. methods: observations were carried out fortnightly and incessantly in pedrinhas, in the state of s?o paulo, brazil, between 1996 and 2000. breeding productivity was measured using the emergence index (e). two large reservoirs of more than 10 liters of water were used, and their permanent character was assured by replacing water every time its level was low. the other reservoirs were six pots, initially filled out with a liter of distilled water. the water content was constantly replaced after every collection, regardless of rainfall. the associations with climatic factors were calculated using the correlation index of pearson. results: the emergence (e) in the uncovered reservoir was 66.5, much higher than the one found at the covered water tank, which was 12.2. the permanent character of both breeding settings was assured by water replacement when there was a decrease in the water levels. there was no significant association between rainfall and temperature variations. it was observed in some of the six pots an association between rainfall and the emergence index, with a lesser productivity in the months with lower rainfalls. that period, june to november, would be the most propitious time to perform the mechanical removal of the containers. conclusion: the differences in productivity of the two permanent reservoirs could be explained, at least in part, to the existence of organic matter that allows larval growth. regarding the temporary containers, it seems that the best time for cleaning up would be during the dry months. having organic matter in the water of breeding settings could enable the isolation of these two mosquito populations, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.
Paridade e influência do vento sobre a freqüência de Anopheles marajoara, S o Paulo
Kakitani Iná,Ueno Helene Mariko,Forattini Oswaldo Paulo
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da velocidade do vento sobre o comportamento da popula o de Anopheles marajoara e sua paridade. MéTODOS: As capturas foram feitas a cada dois meses, de janeiro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000, no município de Ilha Comprida, no Estado de S o Paulo, com utiliza o de aspirador manual movido à pilha. Utilizou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney para verificar a possível influência do vento sobre o comportamento dos mosquitos capturados. Para determinar a paridade, utilizou-se a técnica de Polovodova e a análise do desenvolvimento folicular de Christopher e Mer. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.833 mosquitos, dos quais 3.072 foram de An. marajoara. Observou-se pico de atividade hematofágica de An. marajoara no período das 2:00 às 5:00h. Das 1.006 fêmeas dissecadas, 530 (52,7%) foram nulíparas, 432 (42,9%) uníparas, 24 (2,4%) bíparas e uma multípara; 982 (97,6%) apresentavam seus folículos nas fases I/II de Christopher e Mer, sete nas fases III/IV, e 17 na fase V. Verificou-se diferen a significativa entre a freqüência de An. marajoara diante de vento com velocidades iguais ou superiores a 3 km/h e para medidas inferiores a 3 km/h. CONCLUS ES: An. marajoara apresentou atividade hematofágica notadamente noturna. Verificou-se que aproximadamente 50% das fêmeas de An. marajoara dissecadas eram oníparas. O dado, associado à elevada porcentagem (97,6%) de fêmeas com folículos nos estágios I e II de Christopher e Mer, sugere a existência de concordancia gonotrófica. A freqüência de An. marajoara sofreu considerável redu o diante de ventos com velocidade igual ou superior a 3 km/h.
Emergência de Aedes albopictus em recipientes artificiais
Forattini Oswaldo Paulo,Kakitani Iná,Ueno Helene Mariko
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2001,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Estimar o potencial de emergência média diária de adultos fêmeas de Aedes albopictus, espécie que, embora n o tenha sido incriminada, até o momento, como vetora de dengue no Brasil, é muito próxima de Aedes aegypti. MéTODOS: As observa es foram realizadas quinzenalmente e de maneira ininterrupta na localidade de Pedrinhas, Estado de S o Paulo, no período de 1996 a 2000. Para estimar a produtividade dos criadouros, mediu-se o índice de emergência (E). Foram utilizados dois reservatórios grandes e permanentes com mais de 10 litros de água, para que o líquido faltante fosse reposto a cada coleta. Os demais reservatórios (seis) foram representados por cubas com capacidade de 1 litro, sendo que, a cada cuba, foi adicionado 1 litro de água destilada. Posteriormente, a cada coleta, o volume de água foi reposto independentemente da pluviosidade. As associa es foram estudadas pelo índice de correla o de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A emergência (E) do reservatório mantido descoberto foi de 66,5, maior do que a emergência da caixa d'água coberta, que foi de 12,2. Ambos os criadouros tiveram o caráter de "permanente" assegurado pela reposi o do líquido, caso o volume diminuísse ao longo do tempo de observa o. N o houve associa o importante com as condi es de pluviosidade e de temperatura. Os recipientes menores foram representados por cubas, em número de seis. Algumas delas mostraram associa o com as condi es meteorológicas e os índices de emergência (E), indicando os meses de menor pluviosidade como menos produtivos. Esses meses, de junho a novembro, seriam o lapso de tempo mais propício para realizar a opera o de remo o mecanica de recipientes. CONCLUS O: As diferen as encontradas na produtividade dos dois reservatórios permanentes poder o, ao menos parcialmente, ser explicadas pela presen a de matéria organica que serviria para a alimenta o larval. Quanto aos recipientes transitórios, sup e-se que a época de menor pluviosidade seria a mais propícia para executar a limpeza dos quintais domésticos. Com isso, seria mais eficaz a diminui o da prolifera o de mosquitos na esta o seguinte. A presen a de matéria organica na água dos criadouros poderá, se vegetal ou animal, trazer subsídios à separa o das popula es de Aedes aegypti e de Ae. albopictus.
Excited-State Dynamics of Overlapped Optically-Allowed 1Bu+ and Optically-Forbidden 1Bu- or 3Ag- Vibronic Levels of Carotenoids: Possible Roles in the Light-Harvesting Function
Yasushi Koyama,Yoshinori Kakitani,Takeshi Miki,Rebecca Christiana,Hiroyoshi Nagae
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11041888
Abstract: The unique excited-state properties of the overlapped (diabatic) optically-allowed 1B u + and the optically-forbidden 1B u - or 3A g - vibronic levels close to conical intersection (‘the diabatic pair’) are summarized: Pump-probe spectroscopy after selective excitation with ~100 fs pulses of all- trans carotenoids (Cars) in nonpolar solvent identified a symmetry selection rule in the diabatic electronic mixing and diabatic internal conversion, i.e., ‘1B u +-to-1B u - is allowed but 1B u +-to-3A g - is forbidden’. On the other hand, pump-probe spectroscopy after coherent excitation with ~30 fs of all- trans Cars in THF generated stimulated emission with quantum beat, consisting of the long-lived coherent diabatic cross term and a pair of short-lived incoherent terms.
Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 7- Behaviour of adults Nyssorhynchus anophelines with special reference to Anopheles albitarsis s.l. in South-Eastern Brazil
Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Iná; Massad,Eduardo; Marucci,Daniel;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101995000100005
Abstract: results obtained with catches performed at several sites of the ribeira valley, sp (brazil) are reported. collections with shannon type traps showed a concentration of an.albitarsis s.l. in the experimental farm of pariquera-a?u county, associated with the development of irrigated rice cultivation. two species of the complex, named a and b, were recognized. species b predominated in the samples. indoor and outdoor crepuscular human bait captures were performed a the domiciliary environment. the two species showed a generally low william's media valve of 0.2, the highest value obtained was 1.6. no differences were found between indoor and outdoor behaviours between the two species of the complex.
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