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Multilevel Association Rules in Data Mining
Abhishek Kajal,Isha Kajal
Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Data is the basic building block of any organization. Be it an individual or an organization of any type, it is surrounded by huge flow of quantitative or qualitative data. Data are the patterns which are used to develop or enhance information or knowledge. All the organizations big or small has bulk of data which needs to be storedor retrieved systematically to form information. The repository of data is known as Database. With the advancement in computer science, the database has taken many shapes. According to the applications, starting from the traditional file system to hierarchical, Network, Relational, Object Oriented, Associative, now it has reached to Data Warehouses and Data Marts etc. But every piece of data stored in these databases may not be useful for the organization. Organizations need to filter the useful data from the bulk of data which can be usedfor decision making, reporting or analysis. These useful patterns or pieces of data are known as interesting patterns.
Existentialism in Arun Joshi's The Foreigner
Kajal Thakur
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Existentialism is the philosophy that puts stress on individual existence,freedom and choice. It focuses on acting on ones conviction in order to arrive at personal truth. It originated in the philosophical and literary works of Sartre and Camus. As a philosophic idealism, 'existentialism', in due course of time developed into a powerful revolt against reason, rationality, positivism and the traditional ways in which early philosopher portrayed man. Man's autonomy, assertion of his subjective self, his flouting of reason and rationality, his denial of traditional values, institutions and philosophy, his exercise of will and freedom, and his experience of the anxiety, absurdity and the nothing-ness of life are some of the existential themes, which are reflected in the writings of the exponents of existentialism.
Live in Relationship: An Indian Approach
Krishan Kumar Kajal
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The present paper explained the relationship of unmarried major persons of heterogeneous sex. Does it amount to an offence? There are various Supreme Court cases to explain that live in relationship is a gist of the right to life and personal liberty. Live in relationship is to be compared to marriage if the spouses to live together for long period. But the spouses are free to live separately without any legal hassles like divorce. Rights, responsibilities and obligations of the parties is definite for built safe and secure society. The present paper also explained that the rights of wife as maintenance and alimony, legitimacy of the children and property rights under Hindu law as well as protection provides under Domestic Violence Act, 2005.
Fuzzy Genetic Heuristic for University Course Timetable Problem
Arindam Chaudhuri,Kajal De
International Journal of Advances in Soft Computing and Its Applications , 2010,
Abstract: University Course Timetable Problem is NP-Hard combinatorialoptimization problem which lacks analytical solution methods. It hasreceived tremendous attention from disciplines like Operations Researchand Artificial Intelligence during past few years given its wide use inuniversities. Several algorithms have been proposed most of which arebased on heuristics like Search techniques and Evolutionary Computation.We present Fuzzy Genetic Heuristic Algorithm to solve the problem. Themethod incorporates Genetic Algorithms using indirect representationbased on event priorities, Micro Genetic Algorithms and heuristic LocalSearch operators to tackle real world Timetable Problem from St. Xavier’sCollege, India. Fuzzy Set models measure of violation of soft constraint infitness function to take care of inherent uncertainty and vagueness involvedin real life data. The solutions are developed with respect to manualsolution developed by College staff. The proposed technique satisfies allhard constraints of problem and achieves significantly better score insatisfying soft constraints. The algorithm is computationally intensive incomparison to standard Genetic Algorithm based benchmark heuristics.The reduction computational complexity of the algorithm can be consideredas future work for further research.
An unexpected case of bilateral kidneys studded with multiple abscesses, in a nondiabetic healthy woman-A case report
Vijaya Kamble, Kajal Mitra
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2015, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v6i3.10933
Abstract: Bilateral multiple renal abscesses have been found in individuals with predisposing factors but are infrequently encountered in otherwise healthy individuals. In our case , a lady presented with history? of fever and chills with bilateral renal angle tenderness. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed both kidneys to be studded with multiple renal abscesses of varying sizes. USG Guided percutaneous aspiration was done to establish the correct diagnosis and identify the causative micro organism. Her blood culture and urine culture were negative. The patient was successfully treated with combined intravenous and oral course of antibiotics. In conclusion, as contrary to the usual belief, bilateral renal abscesses can occur in a healthy individual without any history of diabetes or immunocompromised status. In addition full recovery is possible solely with antibiotics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v6i3.10933 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences Vol.6(3) 2015 91-93 ? ?
Different types of ultraluminous X-ray sources in NGC 4631
Roberto Soria,Kajal Ghosh
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/696/1/287
Abstract: We have re-examined the most luminous X-ray sources in the starburst galaxy NGC 4631, using XMM-Newton, Chandra and ROSAT data. The most interesting source is a highly variable supersoft ULX. We suggest that its bolometric luminosity ~ a few 10^{39} erg/s in the high/supersoft state: this is an order of magnitude lower than estimated in previous studies, thus reducing the need for extreme or exotic scenarios. Moreover, we find that this source was in a non-canonical low/soft (kT ~ 0.1-0.3 keV) state during the Chandra observation. By comparing the high and low state, we argue that the spectral properties may not be consistent with the expected behaviour of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We suggest that recurrent super-Eddington outbursts with photospheric expansion from a massive white dwarf (M_{wd} >~ 1.3 M_{sun}), powered by non-steady nuclear burning, may be a viable possibility, in alternative to the previously proposed scenario of a super-Eddington outflow from an accreting stellar-mass black hole. The long-term average accretion rate required for nuclear burning to power such white-dwarf outbursts in this source and perhaps in other supersoft ULXs is ~ 5-10 x 10^{-6} M_{sun}/yr: this is comparable to the thermal-timescale mass transfer rate invoked to explain the most luminous hard-spectrum ULXs (powered by black hole accretion). The other four most luminous X-ray sources in NGC 4631 (three of which can be classified as ULXs) appear to be typical accreting black holes, in four different spectral states: high/soft, convex-spectrum, power-law with soft excess, and simple power-law. None of them requires masses >~ 50 M_{sun}.
Integrable measure equivalence and the central extension of surface groups
Kajal Das,Romain Tessera
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Let $\Gamma_g$ be a surface group of genus $g\geq 2$. It is known that the canonical central extension $\tilde{\Gamma}_g$ and the direct product $\Gamma_g\times \mathbb{Z}$ are quasi-isometric. It is also easy to see that they are measure equivalent. By contrast, in this paper, we prove that quasi-isometry and measure equivalence cannot be achieved "in a compatible way". More precisely, these two groups are not uniform (nor even integrable) measure equivalent. In particular, they cannot act continuously, properly and cocompactly by isometries on the same proper metric space, or equivalently they are not uniform lattices in a same locally compact group.
A Comparative study of Transportation Problem under Probabilistic and Fuzzy Uncertainties
Arindam Chaudhuri,Kajal De
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Transportation Problem is an important aspect which has been widely studied in Operations Research domain. It has been studied to simulate different real life problems. In particular, application of this Problem in NP- Hard Problems has a remarkable significance. In this Paper, we present a comparative study of Transportation Problem through Probabilistic and Fuzzy Uncertainties. Fuzzy Logic is a computational paradigm that generalizes classical two-valued logic for reasoning under uncertainty. In order to achieve this, the notation of membership in a set needs to become a matter of degree. By doing this we accomplish two things viz., (i) ease of describing human knowledge involving vague concepts and (ii) enhanced ability to develop cost-effective solution to real-world problem. The multi-valued nature of Fuzzy Sets allows handling uncertain and vague information. It is a model-less approach and a clever disguise of Probability Theory. We give comparative simulation results of both approaches and discuss the Computational Complexity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on comparative study of Transportation Problem using Probabilistic and Fuzzy Uncertainties.
Fuzzy Integer Linear Programming Mathematical Models for Examination Timetable Problem
Arindam Chaudhuri,Kajal De
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: ETP is NP Hard combinatorial optimization problem. It has received tremendous research attention during the past few years given its wide use in universities. In this Paper, we develop three mathematical models for NSOU, Kolkata, India using FILP technique. To deal with impreciseness and vagueness we model various allocation variables through fuzzy numbers. The solution to the problem is obtained using Fuzzy number ranking method. Each feasible solution has fuzzy number obtained by Fuzzy objective function. The different FILP technique performance are demonstrated by experimental data generated through extensive simulation from NSOU, Kolkata, India in terms of its execution times. The proposed FILP models are compared with commonly used heuristic viz. ILP approach on experimental data which gives an idea about quality of heuristic. The techniques are also compared with different Artificial Intelligence based heuristics for ETP with respect to best and mean cost as well as execution time measures on Carter benchmark datasets to illustrate its effectiveness. FILP takes an appreciable amount of time to generate satisfactory solution in comparison to other heuristics. The formulation thus serves as good benchmark for other heuristics. The experimental study presented here focuses on producing a methodology that generalizes well over spectrum of techniques that generates significant results for one or more datasets. The performance of FILP model is finally compared to the best results cited in literature for Carter benchmarks to assess its potential. The problem can be further reduced by formulating with lesser number of allocation variables it without affecting optimality of solution obtained. FLIP model for ETP can also be adapted to solve other ETP as well as combinatorial optimization problems.
Achieving greater Explanatory Power and Forecasting Accuracy with Non-uniform spread Fuzzy Linear Regression
Arindam Chaudhuri,Kajal De
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Fuzzy regression models have been applied to several Operations Research applications viz., forecasting and prediction. Earlier works on fuzzy regression analysis obtain crisp regression coefficients for eliminating the problem of increasing spreads for the estimated fuzzy responses as the magnitude of the independent variable increases. But they cannot deal with the problem of non-uniform spreads. In this work, a three-phase approach is discussed to construct the fuzzy regression model with non-uniform spreads to deal with this problem. The first phase constructs the membership functions of the least-squares estimates of regression coefficients based on extension principle to completely conserve the fuzziness of observations. They are then defuzzified by the centre of area method to obtain crisp regression coefficients in the second phase. Finally, the error terms of the method are determined by setting each estimated spread equal to its corresponding observed spread. The Tagaki-Sugeno inference system is used for improving the accuracy of forecasts. The simulation example demonstrates the strength of fuzzy linear regression model in terms of higher explanatory power and forecasting performance.
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