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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 87578 matches for " Kai Liu "
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The Long-Term Impact of Household Wealth on Income Mobility  [PDF]
Kai Zhang, Dan Liu
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.83024
Abstract: By using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data, this paper targets the generation who enter the labor market at the age of 18 to 35 and tries to study the long-term impact of their family health on income mobility as well as keep track of the tendency. Three conclusions can be drown from the research. Firstly, the impact is more significant in the second poor group and the middle-income group than that in the high-income group, and that of the low-income group is the worst. Secondly, in the long run, the impact shows a weakening trend, but the changing process is not the same. Thirdly, the significance of impact varies in different age groups. Compared with the groups aged 20 to 35 and 25 to 30, the impact is relatively remarkable for those who just enter the labor market aged 18 to 25.
Cashlet Theory: Discovering the Nature of Accounting  [PDF]
Ting-Kai Liu
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2017.62002
Abstract: Accounting is the “language of business”, which records how our society works from the monetary aspect. Just like mathematics and science, accounting is one of the subjects that help people understand the world. However, accounting is not explained in a way that can be easily understood even for very basic concepts such as debit and credit. This article introduces a novel concept of cashlet into accounting area enlightened by chemistry. Cashlet is defined as a basic accounting unit with a value of negative one in the same way that electron is in chemistry. By comparing accounting transaction with chemical reaction, the author finds out that an accounting transaction is actually a process of transferring cashlets from one account to another just in the same way of a chemical redox reaction that transfers electrons from one chemical species to another. The account that gives cashlets is credited, while the account that takes cashlets is debited. Graphs are introduced to visualize the process. In cashlet theory, credit always means positive or plus (+), while debit always means negative or minus (-). Philosophically, when people give, they get credits; when people take, they get debits. The same idea is true in accounting. This article discovers that the nature of accounting is a process of moving cashlets between accounts and a process of recombining accounts, which simplifies the accounting concepts and helps people better understand the world through accounting.
The Influence of Emotion and Gender on Work Efficiency in Hazy Weather  [PDF]
Yaozhong Liu, Min Liu, Kai Yu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.35009
Abstract: In recent years, the eastern part of China has suffered numerous large-scale continuous fog and haze, which seriously impact people’s production and life. In present research, a combination method of questionnaire and experiment is used to discuss whether the hazy weather could in-fluence the emotion and if there are any impacts on the work efficiency. 2 (gender) × 3 (emotional type: positive, neutral and negative) completely randomized design is used and the reaction time (RT) is analyzed. The results show that 1) hazy weather truly induces the negative emotion, e.g. depression and anxiety; 2) the interaction effect of emotion and gender is significant; the RT of females is significantly longer than males’ in negative emotion condition; for females, RT in negative emotion condition is significantly longer than that in positive and neutral emotion condition, which shows that the hazy weather would lead some inefficiency.
On Regularity Property of Retarded Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Processes in Hilbert Spaces
Kai Liu
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this work, some regularity properties of mild solutions for a class of stochastic linear functional differential equations driven by infinite dimensional Wiener processes are considered. In terms of retarded fundamental solutions, we introduce a class of stochastic convolutions which naturally arise in the solutions and investigate their Yosida approximants. By means of the retarded fundamental solutions, we find conditions under which each mild solution permits a continuous modification. With the aid of Yosida approximation, we study two kinds of regularity properties, temporal and spatial ones, for the retarded solution processes. By employing a factorization method, we establish a retarded version of Burkholder-Davis-Gundy's inequality for stochastic convolutions.
Existence of Invariant Measures of Stochastic Systems with Delay in the Highest Order Partial Derivatives
Kai Liu
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this note, we shall consider the existence of invariant measures for a class of infinite dimensional stochastic functional differential equations with delay whose driving semigroup is eventually norm continuous. The results obtained are applied to stochastic heat equations with distributed delays which appear in such terms having the highest order partial derivatives. In the systems, the associated driving semigroups are generally non eventually compact.
Stationarity of Stochastic Linear Equations with Additive Noise and Delays in the Unbounded Drift Terms
Kai Liu
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: This paper continues the study of [11, 13] for stationary solutions of stochastic linear retarded functional differential equations with the emphasis on delays which appear in those terms including spatial partial derivatives. As a consequence, the associated stochastic equations have unbounded operators acting on the discrete or distributed delayed terms, while the operator acting on the instantaneous term generates a strongly continuous semigroup. We present conditions on the delay systems to obtain a unique stationary solution by combining spectrum analysis of unbounded operators and stochastic calculus. A few instructive cases are analyzed in detail to clarify the underlying complexity in the study of systems with unbounded delayed operators.
The Exploration of Factors That Affect Travel Safety of Child Passengers  [PDF]
Kai Liu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104574
There are few studies on the travel safety of child passenger in China. The study aims to describe the seating position and restraint practice of child passenger in China’s first-tier cities. The travel information on the children enrolled in 10 early education institutions, 15 kindergartens and 10 primary schools was randomly selected in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing and Jinan in recent years. A total of 4900 parents were surveyed to collect children’s travel information and 3556 valid questionnaires were taken back. The adjusted rate ratios for optimal seating position (rear-seated alone) versus suboptimal seating position and restraint use versus non-use of restraints among child passengers were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate binomial regression. Through the survey, it is found that the suboptimal seating position (31.2%) and non-use of restraints (45.4%) were common among child passengers. Younger age (≤8 years old) is an unfavorable factor resulting in seating in rear seats by child passengers; and the higher the driver’s degree of education, the higher the family income and the more understanding about car seat is, the bigger likelihood of being rear-seated alone by child passengers is. Younger age (≤8 years old) is also an unfavorable factor resulting in restraint use by child passengers; and the more understanding about car seat, the more concern on the relevant legislative information and the more knowledge about defective car seat recall have by parents, the bigger likelihood of using restraints for their children during travel. This study suggests that restraint non-use and suboptimal seating position are still common among child passengers in China’s first-tier cities and also identifies the factors influencing restraint use and seating position choice for child passengers. There is an urgent need to improve child passenger safety in China. At the same time, it is also necessary to strengthen the publicity about child passenger’s safety before the relevant laws and regulations are promulgated.
Aging and Life Management System of Reactor Pressure Vessel  [PDF]
Ya-jin Liu, Jiang Guo, Kai-kai Gu
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2011.12004
Abstract: Reactor pressure vessel (RPV), the only key component that can not be replaced in nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the main barrier against the radioactive leakage. The lifetime of NPPs is dependent heavily on the life of RPV, and thus, the aging and life research on a RPV is a key factor in determining the life extension of NPPs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an aging and life management system for an operating RPV which can be used as a reference of the lifetime extension. In order to realize the objective, an aging and life management system was developed. It is an comprehensive knowledge management system that integrates decentralized information and serves as a valuable data center. Based on the storage and management of RPV state information and operation data, this system provides real-time monitoring of important operating parameters, evaluation of irradiation embrittlement, and RPV aging assessment. Therefore, it is anticipated that the developed system can be used as an efficient tool for aging and life estimation of RPV.
Ego-Depletion Promotes Altruistic Punishment  [PDF]
Yaozhong Liu, Na He, Kai Dou
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311009
Abstract: To explore whether psychological resource influences the altruistic punishment, Experiment 1 used the Stroop Task to manipulate participants’ self-control resources and the rejection ratio of unfair proposals in the subsequent Ultimate Game was measured to reveal the effect of self-depletion on altruistic punishment. The result of Experiment 1 showed that decline ratio of participants in the high-depletion group was significantly higher than that of participants in the low-depletion group. After manipulation of self-depletion with the Stroop task, participants in experiment 2 acted as the third-party who watched other two participants playing the Dictator Game and could use their own tokens to punish unfair proposals. The result of Experiment 2 showed that participants in the high-depletion group punished unfair proposals significantly more than counterparts in the low-depletion group. In sum, the results of these two experiments showed that ego depletion promoted altruistic punishment.
Cytotoxicity of Pristine C60 Fullerene on Baby Hamster Kidney Cells in Solution  [PDF]
Shufang Liu, Haijie Liu, Zhijuan Yin, Kai Guo, Xibao Gao
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.33037
Abstract: Research on biological effects of C60 and its derivatives is one of the hotspots in the area of biological effects of nanomaterials. Compared with surface-modified C60 derivatives, reports on the biological effects of unmodified pristine C60 are relatively less. This work aimed to investigate the interaction between baby hamster kidney cells and pristine C60 in solution. The C60 suspension was prepared using solvent exchange method and characterized by UV spectrophotometry, electronic transmission microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. The baby hamster kidney cells were incubated with different concentrations of C60 suspensions, and light microscopy, cell counting kit 8 assay, and acridine orange staining were used to observe the cell growth and morphology. The results showed that C60 could ihibit the cell growth and induce cell apoptosis with a dose-effect relationship. C60 might enter cells and the possible way it enters cells were also proposed.
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