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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200762 matches for " Kai G?rgen "
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Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy
Kossmann, Beate,Ulle, Tanja,Kahl, Kai G.,Wasem,rgen
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two), six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the interventions of media alone as well as through the intervention of media in conjunction with personal support within the groups. However, analyses of the inter-group comparisons offer no statistically significant difference. However, analyses of the inter-group comparisons offer no statistically significant difference. Comparative analyses confirm the effectiveness of behaviour therapy in combination with additional drug treatment when compared to behaviour therapy alone.In all the studies presented here, relevant changes in weight of -5% to -10% are only partially achieved. High weight losses of less than -10% were
Valid population inference for information-based imaging: Information prevalence inference
Carsten Allefeld,Kai Grgen,John-Dylan Haynes
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: In multivariate pattern analysis of neuroimaging data, 'second-level' inference is often performed by entering classification accuracies into a t-test vs chance level across subjects. We argue that while the random effects analysis implemented by the t-test does provide population inference if applied to activation differences, it fails to do so in the case of classification accuracy or other 'information-like' measures, because the true value of such measures can never be below chance level. This constraint changes the meaning of the population-level null hypothesis being tested, which becomes equivalent to the global null hypothesis that there is no effect in any subject in the population. Consequently, rejecting it only allows to infer that there are some subjects in which there is an information effect, but not that it generalizes. This statement is supported by theoretical arguments as well as simulations. We review possible alternative approaches to population inference for information-based imaging, converging on the idea that it should not target the mean, but the prevalence of the effect in the population. One method to do so, 'permutation-based information prevalence inference using the minimum statistic', is described in detail and applied to empirical data.
Crenarchaeal Biofilm Formation under Extreme Conditions
Andrea Koerdt,Julia G?deke,rgen Berger,Kai M. Thormann,Sonja-Verena Albers
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014104
Abstract: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments.
Analytical model for event reconstruction in coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors
Matthew Fritts,rgen Durst,Thomas G?pfert,Thomas Wester,Kai Zuber
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2013.01.004
Abstract: Coplanar-grid (CPG) particle detectors were designed for materials such as CdZnTe (CZT) in which charge carriers of only one sign have acceptable transport properties. The presence of two independent anode signals allows for a reconstruction of deposited energy based on the difference between the two signals, and a reconstruction of the interaction depth based on the ratio of the amplitudes of the sum and difference of the signals. Energy resolution is greatly improved by modifying the difference signal with an empirically determined weighting factor to correct for the effects of electron trapping. In this paper is introduced a modified interaction depth reconstruction formula which corrects for electron trapping utilizing the same weighting factor used for energy reconstruction. The improvement of this depth reconstruction over simpler formulas is demonstrated. Further corrections due to the contribution of hole transport to the signals are discussed.
Verbal Memory Deficits Are Correlated with Prefrontal Hypometabolism in 18FDG PET of Recreational MDMA Users
Oliver G. Bosch, Michael Wagner, Frank Jessen, Kai-Uwe Kühn, Alexius Joe, Erich Seifritz, Wolfgang Maier, Hans-Jürgen Biersack, Boris B. Quednow
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061234
Abstract: Introduction 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational club drug with supposed neurotoxic effects selectively on the serotonin system. MDMA users consistently exhibit memory dysfunction but there is an ongoing debate if these deficits are induced mainly by alterations in the prefrontal or mediotemporal cortex, especially the hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the relation of verbal memory deficits with alterations of regional cerebral brain glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) in recreational MDMA users. Methods Brain glucose metabolism in rest was assessed using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) in 19 male recreational users of MDMA and 19 male drug-na?ve controls. 18FDG PET data were correlated with memory performance assessed with a German version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results As previously shown, MDMA users showed significant impairment in verbal declarative memory performance. PET scans revealed significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right precuneus, right cerebellum, and pons (at the level of raphe nuclei) of MDMA users. Among MDMA users, learning and recall were positively correlated with rMRGlu predominantly in bilateral frontal and parietal brain regions, while recognition was additionally related to rMRGlu in the right mediotemporal and bihemispheric lateral temporal cortex. Moreover, cumulative lifetime dose of MDMA was negatively correlated with rMRGlu in the left dorsolateral and bilateral orbital and medial PFC, left inferior parietal and right lateral temporal cortex. Conclusions Verbal learning and recall deficits of recreational MDMA users are correlated with glucose hypometabolism in prefrontal and parietal cortex, while word recognition was additionally correlated with mediotemporal hypometabolism. We conclude that memory deficits of MDMA users arise from combined fronto-parieto-mediotemporal dysfunction.
Barker sequences of odd length
Kai-Uwe Schmidt,rgen Willms
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: A Barker sequence is a binary sequence for which all nontrivial aperiodic autocorrelations are at most 1 in magnitude. An old conjecture due to Turyn asserts that there is no Barker sequence of length greater than 13. In 1961, Turyn and Storer gave an elementary, though somewhat complicated, proof that this conjecture holds for odd lengths. We give a new and simpler proof of this result.
Intelligent data analysis to interpret major risk factors for diabetic patients with and without ischemic stroke in a small population
Fikret Gürgen, Nurgül Gürgen
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-2-5
Abstract: In modern medicine, large amounts of data are generated, but there is a widening gap between data collection and data comprehension. It is clear that a single human can not process all of the data available and make a rational decision of basic trends. Thus, there is a growing pressure for intelligent data analysis techniques to facilitate the creation of knowledge to support clinicians in making decisions [1-3].Understanding the major risk factors of a diesease is an important factor for clinicians in prevention strategy. The attending physician plays an important role providing information to reduce those risk factors. It is up to the physician whether to warn patients at risk about the major causes of a particular disease and the degree of risk that they are facing. Consider the example of a 66-year-old person who does not know about stroke (also in this study, ischemic stroke) but wants to know the risk of having certain medical test results outside of normal. Explaining the relative risk of stroke given the test results and given the evidence of previous cases interpreted with the aid of intelligent data analysis methods will make the situation clearer.Stroke is an important health issue worldwide and expressing and interpreting risk factors provides vital epidemiological information [4-13]. This study discusses a computational method for highlighting the major risk factors of a small population of diabetic patients with and without non-embolic stroke by performing dependency analysis with local and global classification aspects. For this purpose, the follow-up data of 22 diabetic patients with ischemic stroke (non-embolic) and 22 diabetic patients without stroke were collected over several years [6]. Average population age was 66.2 ± 9.9 For the stroke group, age was 66.2 ± 9.9 (mean and s.d.) years and 61 ± 6.1 (mean and s.d.) years for the control group. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is diagnosed by a fasting glucose level higher than 140 mg/dl and random glucose l
Review: Jacobsen, Trudy: Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History (2008) Buchbesprechung: Jacobsen, Trudy: Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History (2008)
Maraile Grgen
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs , 2009,
Abstract: Review of the monograph: Jacobsen, Trudy (2008), Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History, Copenhagen: NIAS Press ISBN 13-978-7694-001-0, 327 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Jacobsen, Trudy (2008), Lost Goddesses. The Denial of Female Power in Cambodian History, Copenhagen: NIAS Press ISBN 13-978-7694-001-0, 327 Seiten
Geological and Geochemical Features of Uranium Mineralization in Western Turkey  [PDF]
Leyla Kalender, ?mer Nedim Al?i?ek, Ezgi Gürgen
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.73032
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution and geochemical features of uranium mineralization in the Ragillar region in the Manisa-Koprübasi in western Turkey. Sixteen whole rock samples were collected from sites showing the highest levels of radioactivity (7600 cps) as measured by a gamma spectrometer in the dolomitic limestones. SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometry), XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence), an ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometer), and a Leco carbon-sulfur analyzer were used to determine the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the whole rock samples. The mineralogical features showed that uranium mineralization is associated with fluorapatite-rich rocks formed within calcite matrix fractures; cracks systems; and limestone, claystone, marl and silicified breccia zones in the lacustrine sediments that are observed around the Kale crest dolomitic limestones in the Demirci basin. The geochemical data for these samples show a strong positive correlation between uranium and P2O5 concentrations. The geochemical data also indicate that uranium is deposited in the oxidation zone by dissolving the primary minerals (banded gneisses from the Menderes Massif, and dacitic and andesitic tuff) and moving the metal-rich hydrothermal fluids as phosphorus compounds, before passing through fractures, cracks, and permeable sandstone units, or along carbonate and clay layers.
Analysis of the BarA/UvrY Two-Component System in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
Lucas Binnenkade,rgen Lassak, Kai M. Thormann
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023440
Abstract: The BarA/UvrY two-component system is well conserved in species of the γ-proteobacteria and regulates numerous processes predominantly by controlling the expression of a subset of noncoding small RNAs. In this study, we identified and characterized the BarA/UvrY two-component system in the gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Functional interaction of sensor kinase BarA and the cognate response regulator UvrY was indicated by in vitro phosphotransfer studies. The expression of two predicted small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), CsrB1 and CsrB2, was dependent on UvrY. Transcriptomic analysis by microarrays revealed that UvrY is a global regulator and directly or indirectly affects transcript levels of more than 200 genes in S. oneidensis. Among these are genes encoding key enzymes of central carbon metabolism such as ackA, aceAB, and pflAB. As predicted of a signal transduction pathway that controls aspects of central metabolism, mutants lacking UvrY reach a significantly higher OD than the wild type during aerobic growth on N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) while under anaerobic conditions the mutant grew more slowly. A shorter lag phase occurred with lactate as carbon source. In contrast, significant growth phenotypes were absent in complex medium. Based on these studies we hypothesize that, in S. oneidensis MR-1, the global BarA/UvrY/Csr regulatory pathway is involved in central carbon metabolism processes.
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