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Immune restoration disease and changes in CD4+ T-cell count in HIV- infected patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy at Zewditu memorial hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Yemataw Wondie
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-7-46
Abstract: A retrospective study of all HIV- infected patients starting HAART between September 1, 2005 and August 31, 2006 at Zewditu memorial hospital HIV clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was conducted. All laboratory and clinical data were extracted from computerized clinic records and patient charts.A total of 1166 HIV- infected patients with mean ± SD age of 36 ± 9.3 years were on HAART. IRD was identified in 170 (14.6%) patients. OIs diagnosed in the IRD patients were tuberculosis (66.5%, 113/170), toxoplasmosis (12.9%, 22/170), herpes zoster rash (12.9%, 22/170), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (4.1%, 7/170), and cryptococcosis (3.5%, 6/170). Of the 170 patients with IRD, 124 (72.9%) patients developed IRD within the first 3 months of HAART initiation. Low baseline CD4+ T-cell count (odds ratio [OR], 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-4.58) and baseline extra pulmonary tuberculosis (OR, 7.7, 95% CI, 3.36-17.65) were associated with development of IRD. Twenty nine (17.1%) of the IRD patients needed to use systemic anti-inflammatory treatment where as 19(11.2%) patients required hospitalization associated to the IRD occurrence. There was a total of 8 (4.7%) deaths attributable to IRD.The proportion and risk factors of IRD and the pattern of OIs mirrored reports from other countries. Close monitoring of patients during the first three months of HAART initiation is important to minimize clinical deterioration related to IRD.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) improves the immune function and decreases morbidity, mortality and opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected patients [1,2]. However, the introduction of HAART presents new clinical problems, including adverse drug effects, and the event of diseases that are as the result of the restoration of the immune response. When clinical deterioration occurs during immune recovery and is associated with the host inflammatory response to pathogens, the clinical presentation has been described as immune restorat
Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia
Andargachew Mulu, Afework Kassu, Kahsay Huruy, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Gashaw Yitayaw, Masayo Nakamori, Nguyen Van Nhien, Assegedech Bekele, Yared Wondimhun, Shigeru Yamamoto, Fusao Ota
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-569
Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography.After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L) was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Likewise, the level of serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive non-pregnant women (0.74 ± 0.39) was significantly lower than that in HIV negative non-pregnant women (1.18 ± 0.59 μmol/L, P < 0.004). VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol/L) was observed in 18.4% and 17.7% of HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women, respectively. Forty six percent of non-pregnant women with HIV infection had VAD while only 28% controls were deficient for vitamin A (P = 0.002).The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A) supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a significant public health problem around the world and it is particularly serious among women of reproductive age in South-East Asia and Africa [1-4]. It has now become evident that VAD in women has negative consequences on their health status as well as on their infants [3,4]. The link between VAD morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases [5] and non-infectious diseases [6-8] has been known for several years.VAD in pregnant women is associated with night blindness, severe anaemia, wasting, malnutrition, and reproductive and infectious morbidity [9], and increased risk of mortality 1-2 years following delivery [4].
Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in Superconducting HoMo6S8  [PDF]
Tadesse Desta, Gebregziabher Kahsay
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.51004
Abstract: This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in the superconducting HoMo6S8. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and using the Green’s function formalism and equation of motion method, we have obtained expressions for superconducting transition temperature (Tc), magnetic order temperature (Tm), superconductivity order parameter (D) and magnetic order parameter (η). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of energy gap parameter versus transition temperature, superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter are plotted separately. By combining the phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in superconducting HoMo6S8.<
Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Netsanet Worku, Teshome Fetene, Simon Gebretsadik, Fantahun Biadglegne, Yeshambel Belyhun, Abebe Muche, Aschalew Gelaw, Belay Anagaw, Sisay Yifru, Yemataw Wondie, Assegedech Bekele, Moges Tiruneh, Dieter Reissig, Feleke Moges
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-472
Abstract: A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures.Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3%) followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8%) and Isospora belli (1.3%). The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each), hookworm infection (1.8%), and Hymenolepis species (1.3%). Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively.Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P < 0.05). Statistically significant associations were also observed between Shigella infections and patients who were using well and spring water for household consumption, and patients who had dysentery and mucoid stool (P < 0.05).The high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Shigella species in diarrheic patients calls for institution of appropriate public health intervention measures to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. The rational use
Study of Upper Critical Magnetic Field of Superconducting HoMo6Se8  [PDF]
Tadesse Desta, Pooran Singh, Gebregziabher Kahsay
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.53013
Abstract: This work focuses on the study of mathematical aspects of upper critical magnetic field of superconducting HoMo6Se8. At zero external magnetic field, HoMo6Se8 was found to undergo a transition from the normal state to the superconducting state at 5.6 K and returned to a normal but magnetically ordered state between the temperature range of 0.3 K and 0.53 K. The main objective of this work is to show the temperature dependence of the upper critical magnetic field of superconducting HoMo6Se8 by using the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) phenomenological Equation. We found the direct relationship between the GL coherence length (ξGL) and penetration depth (λGL) with temperature. From the GL Equations and the results obtained for the GL coherence length, the expression for upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) is obtained for the superconducting HoMo6Se8. The result is plotted as a function of temperature. The graph shows the linear dependence of upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) with temperature (T) and our finding is in agreement with experimental observations.
Why People Strive to Get Rid of One’s Own Gene from the World? A Psychological Analysis upon Terrorism  [PDF]
Kahsay Weldeslasie Hailemariam
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102248
Abstract: Everybody remembers the April 19/2015 holocaust action committed by the ISIS terrorist group upon the Ethiopian Emigrants in the Libyan port. It was very immoral and devil action to behead and shoot people for the reason they do not know. In addition to that, it was the recent events to remember back about the massacre actions committed upon the France journalists and college students in Kenya who killed by the terrorist groups. For this inhuman and brutal action of the terrorist group, I initiated to make psychological analysis behind their behavior. I was also very eager to read different research findings about the true origin of human difference and why people strive to eliminate their own gene from the earth attributing human made differences. These and other questions are triggered me to make this psychological analysis. In the near future I will come up with detail investigation upon psychological view of terrorism.
Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria from Treated and Untreated Hospital Wastewater at Ayder Referral Hospital, Mekelle, North Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tsegahun Asfaw, Letemichael Negash, Amlsha Kahsay, Yemane Weldu
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.712067
Abstract: The widespread emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become one of the most serious challenges in Ethiopia. This study determined the prevalence and drug resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from treated and untreated wastewater released from Ayder Referral Hospital in Northern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study design was conducted from September-December, 2015 in wastewater released from Ayder referral hospital. A total of 40 composite samples were aseptically collected, transported and processed for enumeration of indicator organisms, bacteriological identification and susceptibility testing following standard procedure. Data obtained were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean heterotrophic plate count, total coliform count, fecal coliform count and E. coli count were found to be 1.6 × 106 CFU/mL, 2.2 × 106 CFU/100 mL, 2.0 × 105 CFU/100 mL and 1.1 × 104 CFU/100 mL from treated wastewater respectively. Among the total samples 134 bacterial isolates were detected and [84 (62.7%)] were from untreated wastewater and [50 (37.3%)] were from treated wastewater. The most frequently isolated bacteria from untreated wastewater samples was Klebsiella spp [14 (16.7%)] followed by S. aureus [13 (15.5%)] and P. aeruginosa [12 (14.3%)], similarly in treated wastewater samples Klebsiella spp [10 (20%)], P. aeruginosa [8 (16%)] and S. aureus [8 (16%)] were frequently detected. The overall multi-drug resistance (MDR) in this study was [79/134 (79.1%)]. MDR from untreated wastewater sample was [64/84 (76.2%)] while from treated wastewater sample was [42/50 (84%)] and shows significant difference with (COR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.15 - 3.29, P: 0.001). It is concluded that treated hospital wastewater contains large numbers of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Therefore, there should be continuous monitoring and evaluation of the effluent quality of the ponds and chlorination of the final effluent should be developed.
Quality Assessment of the Commonly Prescribed Antimicrobial Drug, Ciprofloxacin Tablets, Marketed in Tigray, Ethiopia
G Kahsay, A G/Egziabher
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2010,
Abstract: An attempt was made to assess the quality and compare the physicochemical equivalence of six brands of ciprofloxacin tablets marketed in Tigray, Ethiopia. Six brands of ciprofloxacin tablets were used in the study. Identity, weight uniformity test, disintegration test, dissolution test and assay for the content of active ingredients were performed using the methods described in the British Pharmacopoeia. All the samples passed the identity, disintegration, and dissolution tests but Ciflox failed to release 80% of the drug content within 30 minutes as stipulated in the pharmacopoeia. This product therefore does not comply with the BP 2004 dissolution tolerance limits. All of the brands examined pass the assay for content of active ingredient. This work revealed that the six brands included in the study complied with the physicochemical quality parameters except Ciflox which failed to meet the pharmacopoeial specification for dissolution test. Nevertheless the six brands showed that there is significant difference in the drug release in vitro (p<0.05). To justify the specification limits of the in vitro dissolution test, an attempt should be made to establish a meaningful correlation between in vitro release characteristics and in vivo bioavailability parameters.
Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Underweight and Stunting among Adolescents of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Huruy Assefa,Tefera Belachew,Legesse Negash
ISRN Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/238546
Abstract: Background. Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual’s life. Socioeconomic status, age, sex, and mothers’ educational level are among the important determinant factors of nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, we test the competing hypotheses about the correlates of nutritional status among Ethiopian adolescents. Methods. We report a total of 2084 adolescents and univariate and multivariable linear regression were used to assess socioeconomic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents. Results. Age, highest grade completed, job, and last attended in community school were positively associated with BMI for Age z-score and highest grade completed, household income, and job were positively associated with Height for Age z-score. However, male gender was negatively associated with BMI for Age z-score and male gender, last attended in community school, abdominal pain, and household size were negatively associated with Height for Age z-score. Conclusion. Age of the adolescents, gender, educational status, employment status, and type of last school attended are associated with underweight; gender, place of residence, household size, household income, educational status, employment status, type of last school attended, and abdominal pain are associated with stunting. The findings reflect socio-economic characteristics are associated with underweight and stunting. 1. Background of the study The world population is believed to have reached over 6.6 billion [1]. Adolescence is a particularly unique period in life because it is a time of intense physical, psychosocial, and cognitive development. Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual’s life. Increased nutritional needs to adolescents gain up to 50% of their adult weight, more than 20% of their adult height, and 50% of their adult skeletal mass [2]. There are different factors that affect nutritional status of adolescents. Socioeconomic status, age, sex, and mothers’ educational level are among the important determinant factors of nutritional status of adolescents [3–6]. Studies have shown that adolescent women from low economic status households were most affected by malnutrition and the higher the level of education, the lower the proportion of undernourished adolescent women, and rural adolescent women are more likely to suffer from chronic energy deficiency than adolescent women in urban areas. [7, 8]. There are only a handful of studies on adolescent malnutrition in developing countries—they indicate that younger
The effects of Moringa stenopetala on blood parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in mice
D Ghebreselassie, Y Mekonnen, G Gebru, W Ergete, K Huruy
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Moringa stenopetala and related species are commonly used in folk medicine for various human diseases such as antimalarial, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and as antispasmodic. Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of M. stenopetala on blood parameters, and histopathology of liver and kidney in experimental mice. Methods: Fresh leaves of M. stenopetala were collected from Arbaminch area, Southwest Ethiopia, in November 2005. The leaves were dried and extracted with water. Three month-old Swiss albino male mice, which were kept under uniform laboratory conditions, were randomly divided into four groups (one group of controls and three experimental). (The control group was orally given 0.5 ml of distilled water, and groups II, III and IV were given the aqueous leaf extract of M. stenopetala using intragastric tube to achieve the required doses of 600, 750 and 900 mg/kg body weight, respectively once a day at 24 hours intervals for six weeks and then sacrificed). Blood sample was collected from each mouse and examined for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver and kidney were removed, stained and examined for histopathological profiles. The effects of treatment with aqueous extract of M. stenopetala on hematological, biochemical and histopathology features were compared with control group following standard procedures. Results: Mice treated with 900 mg/kg of the extract per kg of body weight showed a significant increase in body weight compared to the controls (P=0.014). Neither a significant change in the weight nor in histopathology of liver and kidney were observed in the animals treated with aqueous extract of M. stenopetala compared to those of the controls. Serum glucose level (P=0.034) and serum cholesterol level (P=0.016) decreased significantly after six weeks treatment. Conclusion: The aqueous leaf extract of M. stenopetala is shown to increase body weight and reduce serum glucose and cholesterol level in mice. This indicates nutritional and medicinal values, but we cannot yet recommend its therapeutic use before more and complete studies are done.
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