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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 241 matches for " Kahori Seto "
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Patterns and Trends in Diagnostic Tests Used for Detection of Colorectal Cancer after Screening with the Immunochemical Fecal Occult Blood Test in Japan  [PDF]
Junta Yamamichi, Kahori Seto, Shiro Hinotsu, Koichi Nagata, Yasutoshi Kobayashi, Hisashi Urushihara, Koji Kawakami
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2015.53018
Abstract: According to the guidelines by the Japanese government, optical colonoscopy is the most strongly recommended diagnostic test after screening with the immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT), followed by double-contrast barium enema (BE) or sigmoidoscopy. Our study was to assess patterns and trends of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnostic testing within 2 years after iFOBT. We analyzed both iFOBT results and claims data provided by employee health insurance societies in Japan from 2005 to 2010. 25,596 enrollees underwent iFOBT screening. The positive rate was 5.1%. 32.3% of those positive underwent diagnostic tests and 1.0% (12 patients) were confirmed as having cancer. The most common test was optical colonoscopy (77.2% of total tests), followed by BE (16.2%). From 2006 to 2009, the rate of optical colonoscopy for females increased from 55% to 82% and that of BE declined from 36% to 12%, while no significant changes were seen for males. Only one-third of those who tested positive underwent diagnostic test in the 2 years following screening iFOBT. As official guidelines for diagnostic testing of CRC recommend, optical colonoscopy is now the most commonly used diagnostic test after positive iFOBT result for enrollees in employee health insurance societies in Japan.
Radiation-Induced Carotid Artery Stenosis in a Patient with Carcinoma of the Oral Floor
Kahori Seto,Kenji Yamagata,Fumihiko Uchida,Toru Yanagawa,Kojiro Onizawa,Hiroki Bukawa
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/379039
Abstract: Radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis (RI-CS), a life-threatening condition, can occur after external radiation for head and neck cancer. We here describe a case of asymptomatic RI-CS in a 73-year-old patient treated with chemoradiotherapy and radical neck dissection for a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor. Stenosis of the left carotid artery, diagnosed as RI-CS, showed on an MRI performed 1.5 years after radiotherapy. Blood from the left side of the anterior cerebral artery and the middle anterior artery was flowing to the brain through the anterior and posterior communicating arteries, so no stent surgery or other treatment was necessary. The cancer has not recurred during approximately 5 years of followup after radiotherapy, and the patient has had no adverse effects from the RI-CS since it was diagnosed 3.5 years ago. This case emphasizes the necessity of early scrutiny for RI-CS in patients given radiotherapy for oral cancer. 1. Introduction External beam radiotherapy is often necessary to treat cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or salivary gland, or lymphomas involving the cervical lymph nodes. Radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis (RI-CS), a life-threatening complication, is reported to occur in 30% to 50% of patients treated with external irradiation for head and neck cancer (HANC) [1]. Patients with RI-CS have an increased risk of stroke, and the risk increases with hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or obesity. Although the radiation port for treating HANC always includes the carotid arteries, the factors responsible for later effects of radiation on these large blood vessels have not been adequately defined [2–4]. The prevalence of RI-CS varies according to the primary cancer site. Although independent significant predictors reported for RI-CS include nasopharynx and larynx cancer, only 1 of 25 (4.0%) patients treated for tongue cancer developed RI-CS [5, 6]. No [7] large studies of RI-CS occurring after treatment for carcinomas of the tongue and the oral floor have been conducted. We here report a rare case of asymptomatic RI-CS that developed in a patient treated with radiotherapy for carcinoma of the oral floor. 2. Case Report A 73-year-old man was referred to the University of Tsukuba Hospital with a mass in the floor of his mouth. His medical history included hypertension and asthma. He had smoked 20 cigarettes a day for 30 years, until the age of 58. He denied any symptoms of cerebrovascular or hepatic disease. His face appeared symmetrical, and the submandibular lymph nodes on both sides were soft and
Targeting Interleukin-4 Receptor Alpha by Hybrid Peptide for Novel Biliary Tract Cancer Therapy
Kahori Seto,Junichi Shoda,Tomohisa Horibe,Eiji Warabi,Masayuki Kohno,Toru Yanagawa,Hiroki Bukawa,Yasuni Nakanuma,Koji Kawakami
International Journal of Hepatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/584650
Abstract: It is known that the interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is highly expressed on the surface of various human solid tumors. We previously designed novel IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide composed of binding peptide to IL-4Rα and cell-lytic peptide and reported that the designed IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide exhibited cytotoxic and antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo against the human pancreatic cancer cells expressing IL-4Rα. Here, we evaluated the antitumor activity of the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide as a novel molecular targeted therapy for human biliary tract cancer (BTC). The IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in six BTC cell lines with a concentration that killed 50% of all cells (IC50) as low as 5?μM. We also showed that IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide in combination with gemcitabine exhibited synergistic cytotoxic activity in vitro. In addition, intravenous administration of IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human BTC in vivo. Taken together, these results indicated that the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide is a potent agent that might provide a novel therapy for patients with BTC. 1. Introduction Biliary tract cancer such as gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer as well as intrahepatic bile duct cancer (one of the primary liver cancers) is likely to undergo metastasis to the peritoneum (peritoneal dissemination) or the liver at early stages and is often resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These cancers have been thus viewed as intractable cancers unlikely to be cured completely. In Japan, the incidence of biliary tract cancer and intrahepatic bile duct cancer is about 10 out of every 100,000 people [1]. As for intrahepatic bile duct cancer, both the incidence and death rate have been rising in Japan in recent years, resembling the trend observed in western countries [2, 3]. In Japan, gemcitabine and S-1 have recently begun to be used for anticancer chemotherapy, and these drugs are expected to prolong the survival period of patients as compared to existing anticancer drugs [4]. However, because of frequent adverse events of the hematological system arising from these drugs and because of compromised hepatic function often noted in patients with intrahepatic bile duct cancer due to accompanying liver cirrhosis and in those with extrahepatic bile duct cancer or gallbladder cancer due to accompanying obstructive cholestasis, treatment with these drugs has to be discontinued or stopped. To improve the outcome of treatment of these cancers, it is very
Synergy between molecular biology and imaging science toward mechanism-based biomarkers associated with prostate cancer  [PDF]
Belinda Seto
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A107

Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with subtypes that are characterized by different molecular profiles as a result of chromosomal rearrangements, epigenetic modifications, and activation of various signaling pathways. The subtype heterogeneity contributes to the challenges with a definitive diagnosis and biomarkers for disease progression. The current diagnostic test based on the detection of prostate specific antigen lacks sensitivity and specificity. Imaging plays an important role in characterizing biomarkers and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. For example, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose is commonly used to assess cancer cell metabolism. More recently, magnetic resonance spectroscopic observations of the in vivo dynamic conversion of hyperpolarized 13C- pyruvate to lactate demonstrate that imaging enables the visualization of molecular processes. Biomarkers have also been developed that reveal aberrant cell growth and proliferation, both hallmarks of cancer. Androgen dependent and independent signaling path- ways underpin prostate cancer pathogenesis as they lead to downstream effect in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and suppression of apoptosis. Molecular imaging with radiolabeled ligands and positron emission tomography/computed tomography has provided quantitative characterization of the interactions between receptors and testosterone or growth factors. These observations, along with data on genetic alterations of the receptor genes, shed light on signal transduction involved in prostate cancer. This review article highlights advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer and the synergy of this knowledge with imaging in characterizing potential biomarkers of the disease.

Rapamycin and mTOR: a serendipitous discovery and implications for breast cancer
Belinda Seto
Clinical and Translational Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2001-1326-1-29
Abstract: Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer, after skin cancer, among U.S. women. In 2012, 227,000 new cases have been reported [1]. Recent developments in computed tomography imaging have improved the early detection of breast cancer, when treatment is most effective [2]. Concomitant with the technological development is the explosion of research findings on the molecular mechanisms of breast cancer. As a result, mechanism-based approaches have become increasingly used as strategies for therapeutic developments. This confluence of technology development in early diagnosis and improved therapeutics has led to a decline in breast cancer death in recent years, although death rates are still higher than all types of cancer other than lung cancer [3].This report describes a tale of discovery that reinforces the serendipitous nature of basic research and the notion that discoveries may lead to unanticipated outcomes in other disciplines. In this particular story, the isolation of the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus from a soil sample three decades ago on a remote island led to intense, multifaceted research that changed the way breast cancer is treated. The identification of rapamycin from Streptomyces hygroscopicus as an antifungal agent, through being an immune inhibitor to being an effective anticancer drug, demonstrates a research continuum driven by clinical observations that were critical in the elucidation of the mTOR pathway. Rapamycin provided the stimulus for research on the complex and pivotal mTOR pathway that transmits signals through which it controls a range of vital biological processes. The dissection of the molecular networks of interacting signaling pathways has led to improved understanding of the transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolic processes that underpin oncogenic transformation. Such knowledge has led to therapeutic developments that yielded targeted drugs for breast cancer patients. For patients who are estrogen and
Viral Genomics and Bioinformatics
Donald Seto
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2122587
Abstract: From the recognition by Ivanovski in 1892 that tobacco mosaic disease is caused and transmitted by fine pore filtrates [1], viruses have been isolated, characterized, identified and studied from animals, plants, protists, bacteria and even other viruses [2,3]. As human and global public health pathogens that can be highly contagious and have devastating morbidity and mortality consequences, viruses are the focus of much research. The difficult challenge has been to define and study a miniscule “being” with the appropriate tools. In the past, these tools often provided only low-resolution views. A first approach to studying an unknown virus is to know exactly its identity, and to place it into context of other related and non-related viruses. For human and public health, this is important as the identity may provide a course of action to limit the effects of the pathogen. [...]
Organization of Knowledge and the Hyperlink: Eco's The Name of the Rose and Borges' The Library of Babel
Seto, Iva
Library Student Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Western epistemology is linear or teleological, logical, and atomistic. Our classification does not adequately represent other cultures with holistic, circular, and inclusive worldviews. These issues are discussed through Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose and deconstructed using theory discussed by Hope Olson. With the advent of the Internet, and the multiple possibilities of hyperlinks that are like a rhizome, hierarchical classification no longer needs to be an issue. Each item (web page) is a node of the rhizome and has the potential to be linked to infinite numbers of other nodes. All nodes are equal in value and extend shoots to other nodes. Borges' The Library of Babel represents the rhizome through a honeycomb of infinite hexagons.
Non-Gaussianity analysis of GW background made by short-duration burst signals
Naoki Seto
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.043003
Abstract: We study an observational method to analyze non-Gaussianity of a gravitational wave (GW) background made by superposition of weak burst signals. The proposed method is based on fourth-order correlations of data from four detectors, and might be useful to discriminate the origin of a GW background. With a formulation newly developed to discuss geometrical aspects of the correlations, it is found that the method provides us with linear combinations of two interesting parameters, I_2 and V_2 defined by the Stokes parameters of individual GW burst signals. We also evaluate sensitivities of specific detector networks to these parameters.
Prospects of LIGO for constraining inclination of merging compact binaries associated with three-dimensionally localized short-hard GRBs
Naoki Seto
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.024016
Abstract: We study prospects of a method to constrain the inclination of a coalescing compact binary by detecting its gravitational waves associated with a three-dimensionally localized (direction and distance) short-hard gamma-ray burst. We take advantage of a synergy of these two observations, and our method can be applied even with a single interferometer. For a nearly face-on binary the inclination angle $I$ can be constrained in the range 1-1/SNR < cosI \le 1 (SNR: the signal to noise ratio of gravitational wave detection), provided that the error of the distance estimation is negligible. This method would help us to study properties of the short-hard bursts, including potentially collimated jet-like structures as indicated by recent observation.
Correlation analysis of stochastic gravitational wave background around 0.1-1Hz
Naoki Seto
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.063001
Abstract: We discuss prospects for direct measurement of stochastic gravitational wave background around 0.1-1Hz with future space missions. It is assumed to use correlation analysis technique with the optimal TDI variables for two sets of LISA-type interferometers. The signal to noise for detection of the background and the estimation errors for its basic parameters (amplitude, spectral index) are evaluated for proposed missions.
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