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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 282 matches for " KUMBHAR NM "
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International Journal of Bioinformatics Research , 2011,
Abstract: Conformational preferences of hypermodified nucleotide ‘lysidine’ in the model diphosphate (Me-p-k2Cp-Me) segment of anticodon loop of tRNAIle have been studied by using quantum chemical perturbativeconfiguration interaction with localized orbitals (PCILO) method. The consequences of 5′-3′ diphosphate backboneon the conformation of zwitterionic, non-zwitterionic, neutral and tautomeric forms of lysidine have beeninvestigated and compared with diphosphate backbone of cytidine nucleotide. Automated geometry optimizationusing semi-empirical quantum chemical RM1, quantum mechanical Hartree-Fock (HF-SCF) and DensityFunctional Theory (B3LYP/6-31G**) calculations have also been made to compare the salient features. Theorientation of lysine moiety is found trans to the N(1) of cytidine in the predicted most stable conformations of allthe four forms of lysidine in the model 5′-3′ diphosphate anticodon loop segment. The lysine substituent folds backand form hydrogen bond with 2′-hydroxyl group of ribose sugar. Lysine substituent of various diphosphate lysidinenucleotides does not interact with 5′or 3′ diphosphate backbone. All forms of lysidine nucleotides retain anti (χ=3 )glycosyl (glycosidic) torsion angle. Diphosphate cytidine nucleotide prefers (χ=33 ), which could destabilize thec3′-endo sugar to the minor extent. The interaction between O(12b)----HO2′ of tautomer diphosphate nucleotidemay help in maintaining the c3′-endo sugar puckering at wobble (34th) position as compared to other lysidineforms and cytidine nucleotide. Hence, tautomeric form of lysidine along with suitable hydrogen bond donoracceptorgroups may also provide structural stability for the proper recognition of AUA codons instead of AUGcodons.
Why antibiotics: A comparative evaluation of different hypotheses for the natural role of antibiotics and an evolutionary synthesis  [PDF]
Charushila Kumbhar, Milind Watve
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.54A005

Although secondary metabolites with antimicrobial and other bioactivities are explored extensively, the natural or ecological role(s) of secondary metabolites is not yet clearly known. We review here the different hypotheses for the ecological role of antibiotics, with particular focus on the genus Streptomyces which is unparalleled in the richness of secondary metabolites. We first lay down our expectations from an ecological hypothesis for antibiotics and then weigh the six predominant hypotheses against them including antibiotics as weapons in competition, as aid in sporulation, as bartered benefits in symbioses, as signal molecules in community homeostasis, as weapons in predation and as metabolic waste or bi-products. The analysis shows that no single hypothesis meets all the expectations. While the waste or bi-product hypothesis can safely be eliminated all others have some evidence in support. It is possible therefore that antibiotics serve a multitude of ecological functions and it is possible to visualize a pathway for the radiating functions. According to this synthesis antibiotics evolved primarily as weapons in predation on other microorganisms. The inevitable co-evolution with prey species led to diversification of the genes and pathways. Some of the secondary metabolites eventually radiated to acquire other functions such as competition between predators. Some secondary metabolites evolved animal toxicity as a mutualistic barter to protect the symbiotic partner from grazing/predation by animals. Transcription modulation primarily evolved as activation of defense mechanisms by the prey which may have later radiated to serve interspecies signaling functions. The synthesis successfully links different functions of antibiotics with logical coherence.

Some Critical Issues of Women Entrepreneurship in Rural India
European Academic Research , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to discuss the issues regarding women entrepreneurship in rural India. This paper is mostly based on secondary data and some observations; for the identification of these issues the author has reviewed different research articles and reports. Findings of this study reveal that absence of definite agenda of life, absence of balance between family and career obligations of women, poor degree of financial freedom for women, absence of direct ownership of the property, the paradox of entrepreneurial skill & finance in economically rich and poor women, no awareness about capacities, low ability to bear risk, problems of work with male workers, negligence by financial institutions, lack of self-confidence, lack of professional education, mobility constraints and lack of interaction with successful entrepreneurs are major problems of women entrepreneurship development in India.
Undirected Connectivity of Sparse Yao Graphs
Mirela Damian,Abhaykumar Kumbhar
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Given a finite set S of points in the plane and a real value d > 0, the d-radius disk graph G^d contains all edges connecting pairs of points in S that are within distance d of each other. For a given graph G with vertex set S, the Yao subgraph Y_k[G] with integer parameter k > 0 contains, for each point p in S, a shortest edge pq from G (if any) in each of the k sectors defined by k equally-spaced rays with origin p. Motivated by communication issues in mobile networks with directional antennas, we study the connectivity properties of Y_k[G^d], for small values of k and d. In particular, we derive lower and upper bounds on the minimum radius d that renders Y_k[G^d] connected, relative to the unit radius assumed to render G^d connected. We show that d=sqrt(2) is necessary and sufficient for the connectivity of Y_4[G^d]. We also show that, for d <= ~1.056, the graph Y_3[G^d] can be disconnected, but for d >= 2/sqrt(3), Y_3[G^d] is always connected. Finally, we show that Y_2[G^d] can be disconnected, for any d >= 1.
Approach to acid-base disorders – A clinical chemistry perspective
NM Oosthuizen
Continuing Medical Education , 2012,
Abstract: No
The beliefs and practices of Tshivenda-speaking multiparous women on contraception: A qualitative study
NM Ndwamato
South African Family Practice , 2009,
Abstract: Background: The aim of the study was to understand the beliefs and practices of multiparous women on the use of contraceptives. Methods: This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews involving women from five different groups, namely: modern church, traditional church, traditional healers, care group and ‘stokvel’. Results: Women in all the groups were aware of various contraceptive methods and had experience of some of the methods. Women from the traditional church and healers groups did not believe in modern contraception. The traditional church group used water and tea for family planning and were discouraged by their church from using modern contraception. The traditional healers group used a method called “u fhahea” in Tshivenda or “to hang” i.e. herbal mixtures were placed in a clay pot, bottle, or animal coat and safely hidden until a woman was ready to conceive. The other three groups believed in and used modern contraceptive methods. The latter groups expressed that contraception gave them a sense of control to decide the number and appropriate space between children. The following reasons were given for not using or stopping contraception: infertility, enlargement of vagina, itchy watery vaginal discharge, malpresentation of fetus, decreased sexual desire, excessive weight gain or loss and disturbances of menstrual cycle. These reasons were believed to be responsible for family breakdown and inability of women to perform their normal household chores. Conclusions: This study has provided some insight into the beliefs and perceptions of women on contraception especially within the black African context. Beliefs based on religious and traditional practices influence the use of contraception in certain social groups, while perceptions about sideeffects of contraceptives cause some women in other social groups not to use or suspend the use of contraception. Family planning programmes should be structured in such a way that the views of women in a particular community are considered.
Plagiarism: Misconduct Awareness on Novice Research within the Cyberword
NM Lehobye
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2010,
Abstract: More often than not, there exists some form of infringement relating to the use of other authors' work. This is particularly so in instances in which novice authors make use of the information available within the cyber-digital environment. The article explains the meaning of plagiarism and describes the many manifestations thereof, with the primary aim of providing guidance to novice authors.
Reading strategy instruction and teacher change: Implications for teacher training
NM Klapwijk
South African Journal of Education , 2012,
Abstract: I report on teacher change in the context of a reading strategy instruction intervention. Reading Strategy Instruction (RSI) was implemented by three teachers, new to the concept, over a period of 15 weeks. Observations of these teachers showed that a multitude of factors affect the uptake of RSI as part of everyday teaching practice, and that teachers seem to move through distinct phases in their uptake of RSI. The article focuses on teachers’ reaction to RSI and highlights a number of issues that are important to the implementation of RSI, not the least of which is that a clear need exists for changes to in-service teacher training and support and pre-service teacher training. In an effort to address these training issues the article contains specific recommendations for pre-service teacher training in particular.
Malaysian Family Physician , 2009,
Malaysian Family Physician , 2009,
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