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Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study
Eva Thorell, Per Kristiansson
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-30
Abstract: A cohort of pregnant women, recruited from maternal health care centers in central Sweden, were examined regarding estimated peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometer test in early pregnancy, reported physical activity prior to pregnancy, basic characteristics, back pain during pregnancy and back pain postpartum.Back pain during the current pregnancy was reported by nearly 80% of the women. At the postpartum appointment this prevalence was 40%. No association was displayed between estimated peak oxygen uptake and incidence of back pain during and after pregnancy, adjusted for physical activity, back pain before present pregnancy, previous deliveries, age and weight. A significant inverse association was found between estimated peak oxygen uptake and back pain intensity during pregnancy and a direct association post partum, in a fully adjusted multiple linear regression analysis.Estimated peak oxygen uptake and reported physical activity in early pregnancy displayed no influence on the onset of subsequent back pain during or after pregnancy, where the time sequence support the hypothesis that poorer physical deconditioning is not a cause but a consequence of the back pain condition. The mechanism for the attenuating effect of increased oxygen uptake on back pain intensity is uncertain.Chronic medical conditions are in focus for the development of strategies aimed at improving population health worldwide. This is also true for chronic pain conditions leading to impaired or non-existent ability to exercise, as physical inactivity is associated with development of chronic diseases. Musculoskeletal disorders constitute an estimated 90% of all chronic pain, of which back pain contributes to a high extent.During pregnancy there is a remarkably increased prevalence of low back pain, as compared with the non-pregnant state. Prevalence rates between 61% and 88% of back pain with onset during current pregnancy are reported, as compared with one-year prevalence of back pain, irresp
Scalar Field Corrections to AdS_4 Gravity from Higher Spin Gauge Theory
Fredric Kristiansson,Peter Rajan
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2003/04/009
Abstract: We compute the complete contribution to the stress-energy tensor in the minimal bosonic higher spin theory in D=4 that is quadratic in the scalar field. We find arbitrarily high derivative terms, and that the total sign of the stress-energy tensor depends on the parity of the scalar field.
Wound String Scattering in NCOS Theory
Fredric Kristiansson,Peter Rajan
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)00204-0
Abstract: We calculate the amplitude for a non-excited closed string with nonzero winding number to scatter from a D-string with a near critical E field. We go to the NCOS limit and observe that we get the same result if we adopt another approach put forward by Gomis and Ooguri.
Understanding the Contributing Factors to Nighttime Crashes at Freeway Mainline Segments  [PDF]
Hongyun Chen, Kristiansson Fanny
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.94028
Abstract: This study investigated the crash contributing factors to the injury outcomes and the characteristics of the night time crashes at freeway mainline segments. Multinomial logit model (MNL) was selected to estimate the explanatory variables at a 95% confidence level. The six-year crash data (2005-2010) were obtained in the State of Florida, USA and five injury level outcomes, no injury, possible injury, non-incapacitating injury, capacitating injury, and fatal injury, were considered. The no injury level was selected as the baseline category.
浙江大学学报(农业与生命科学版) , 2000,
Abstract: Oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) harvested from mature plants require only imbibition of water and a suitable temperature. Despite this absence of primary dormancy, there is evidence that rapeseeds, due to the induction of secondary dormancy, are able to persist in the field for up to 10 years, and thus can emerge as volunteer plants in later crops. In addition, volunteers originate from seeds shed before and during harvest. The level of seed losses is influenced by the timing and technique of harvest, and can reach several thousand seeds per m2. As a consequence of both these effects, problems from volunteer rape occur frequently in subsequent crops.   Volunteer rape has been particularly troublesome in broad-leaved crops. It is a highly competitive weed and due to its prolonged period of emergence, timing of herbicide application is sometimes a problem. Volunteer rape can contaminate the sown crop resulting in heterogenous mixtures of seeds. This not only affects breeding and the production of seed crops, but can also affect growers when they switch from one type or quality of rape to another, or if they grow different rape qualities in one rotation, e.g., rapeseed for human consumption in the normal rotation and rapeseed for industrial use on set-aside land. The problem will not disappear with the introduction of herbicide resistant oilseed rape, as there are no indications that seeds of these cultivars will not have the potential to persist. The ability of rapeseed to persist in the soil for a long time and at high percentages also has to be taken into account in risk assessment of genetically manipulated rape, as rape can escape in space by pollen transfer or in time via the soil seedbank. Although hybridization between oilseed rape and wild crucifers is infrequent, it does occur. Traits, such as herbicide resistance or pest and disease resistance, if transferred into wild plants have the potential to alter the agro-ecosystem significantly.……
Isolated populations and complex disease gene identification
Kati Kristiansson, Jussi Naukkarinen, Leena Peltonen
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-8-109
Abstract: Over the past few years, understanding how genetic variation in individuals and in populations contributes to the biological pathways involved in determining human traits and mechanisms of disease has become a reachable goal for genetic research. Following on from the achievements in molecular studies of monogenic disorders, recent studies have used strategies of hypothesis-free fine mapping of genes and loci to identify underlying factors in common complex diseases with major impacts on public health. These diseases, which include cancers, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia, autism and multiple sclerosis, arise from complex interactions between environmental factors and variation in several different genes. Until recently, detection of the genes underlying these diseases met with only limited success, but the past two years have witnessed the identification of more than 100 well established loci. These successes mainly involved the collection of very large study cohorts for any individual trait and international collaborations on an unprecedented scale [1].The detection of genes underlying common complex diseases might not always need large global population samples. Samples of individuals from genetically isolated populations, or 'population isolates', have already proved immensely useful in the identification of rare recessive disease genes. Such genes are only detectable in isolated populations with a limited number of founders, where rare disease alleles are enriched, thus resulting in homozygote individuals affected by the disease. Impressive accomplishments in disease-locus mapping and gene identification using genome-wide scans of only a handful of affected individuals in such populations have been reported, typically based on linkage analyses and homozygosity scanning [2,3]. It is becoming increasingly apparent that studies locating genes underlying complex phenotypes also benefit from the study of samples from homogeneous populations with a limited numb
Brain Processing of Fearful Facial Expression in Mentally Disordered Offenders  [PDF]
Katarina Howner, H?kan Fischer, Thomas Dierks, Andrea Federspiel, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Tomas Jonsson, Maria Kristoffersen Wiberg, Marianne Kristiansson
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2011.13016
Abstract: Emotional facial expressions are important cues for interaction between people. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain function when processing fearful facial expressions in offenders with two psychiatric disorders which include impaired emotional facial perception; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy (PSY). Fourteen offenders undergoing forensic psychiatric assessment (7 with ASD, and 7 psychopathic offenders) and 12 healthy controls (HC) viewed fearful and neutral faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Brain activity (fearful versus neutral faces) was compared both between HC and offenders and between the two offender groups (PSY and ASD). Functional co-activation was also investigated. The offenders had increased activity bilaterally in amygdala and medial cingulate cortex as well as the left hippocampus during processing fearful facial expressions compared to HC. The two subgroups of offenders differed in five regions compared with each other. Results from functional co-activation analysis suggested a strong correlation between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the left hemisphere only in the PSY group. These findings suggest enhanced neural processing of fearful faces in the amygdala as well as in other facial processing brain areas in offenders compared to HC. Moreover, the co-activation between amygdala and ACC in the PSY but not the ASD group suggested qualitative differences in amygdala activity in the two groups. Since the sample size is small the study should be regarded as a pilot study.
Weighted analysis of general microarray experiments
Anders Sj?gren, Erik Kristiansson, Mats Rudemo, Olle Nerman
BMC Bioinformatics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-387
Abstract: The WAME procedure is extended to general microarray experiments, making it capable of handling both one- and two-channel datasets. Two public one-channel datasets are analysed and WAME detects both unequal variances and correlations. WAME is compared to other common methods: fold-change ranking, ordinary linear model with t-tests, LIMMA and weighted LIMMA. The p-value distributions are shown to differ greatly between the examined methods. In a resampling-based simulation study, the p-values generated by WAME are found to be substantially more correct than the alternatives when a relatively small proportion of the genes is regulated. WAME is also shown to have higher power than the other methods. WAME is available as an R-package.The WAME procedure is generalized and the limitation to paired-design microarray datasets is removed. The examined other methods produce invalid p-values in many cases, while WAME is shown to produce essentially valid p-values when a relatively small proportion of genes is regulated. WAME is also shown to have higher power than the examined alternative methods.The DNA microarray technique involves a series of steps, from the harvesting of cells or biopsies to the preprocessing of the scanned arrays, before analysable data are obtained. During several of these steps the quality can be affected by random factors. For instance, depending on the handling of a biological sample the mRNA can be more or less degraded [1], and the cell-type composition of a biopsy can be more or less representative for the tissue in question. When arrays share sources of variation the deviations from the nominal value will be correlated. For example, two arrays from sources with degraded RNA will both tend to underestimate the expression of easily degradable genes, and two biopsies with a similar and non-representative cell-type composition will deviate in a similar fashion from the average expression for the ideal cell-type composition.The procedure Weighted Analy
Pain, power and patience - A narrative study of general practitioners' relations with chronic pain patients
Mia Kristiansson, Annika Brorsson, Caroline Wachtler, Margareta Troein
BMC Family Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-31
Abstract: Our theoretical perspective is constructivist, based upon the relativist view that individuals construct realities to understand and navigate the world. Five Swedish General Practitioners (GPs), two male and three female, were interviewed and asked to tell a story about a difficult encounter with a chronic pain patient. Tapes of the interviews were transcribed and analysed using narrative analysis. Three GPs told narratives suited for our analytic tools and these were included in the final results.Each narrative highlights a certain dilemma and a strategy. The dilemmas were: power game; good intentions that fail when a patient is persuaded against her own conviction; persuasion of the unwilling; transferred tiredness; distrust and dissociation from the patient. Professional strategies of listening, encouraging and teamwork were central to handling difficult situations.The narratives show that GP's consultations with chronic pain patients sometimes are characterized by conflicts and difficult situations. They are facilitated by methods such as active listening and teamwork, but still may remain hard to handle. This has not before been studied among Swedish GPs. Narratives based on experience are known to be successful in education and this study suggest how narratives can serve as a training of consultation for medical students, but also in Continuing Professional Development groups for experienced doctors in practice.Patients with chronic pain are common in general practice [1]. In this paper chronic pain is defined as diffuse musculoskeletal pain associated with neither inflammatory diseases nor cancer. Chronic pain patients are considered a challenge by doctors [1-9]. Suspicion, failure and lack of power characterize doctors' relationships with these patients. Doctors feel suspicious when patients benefit from being ill and when biomedical explanations do not match patients' experience [2-4,6,7]. Doctors fear failure when neither cure, nor improvement nor consolat
Characterization of the Zoarces viviparus liver transcriptome using massively parallel pyrosequencing
Erik Kristiansson, Noomi Asker, Lars F?rlin, DG Joakim Larsson
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-345
Abstract: In the present study we present the first comprehensive characterization of the Zoarces viviparus liver transcriptome. From 400,000 reads generated by massively parallel pyrosequencing, more than 50,000 pieces of putative transcripts were assembled, annotated and functionally classified. The data was estimated to cover roughly 40% of the total transcriptome and homologues for about half of the genes of Gasterosteus aculeatus (stickleback) were identified. The sequence data was consequently used to design an oligonucleotide microarray for large-scale gene expression analysis.Our results show that one run using a Genome Sequencer FLX from 454 Life Science/Roche generates enough genomic information for adequate de novo assembly of a large number of genes in a higher vertebrate. The generated sequence data, including the validated microarray probes, are publicly available to promote genome-wide research in Zoarces viviparus.Zoarces viviparus, or common eelpout, lives in the shallow waters along the coasts in Northern Europe [1]. In contrast to many other fish species living in these regions, the eelpout has a number of distinct characteristics which makes this fish particularly interesting for ecological and ecotoxicological studies. The relatively stationary behavior makes it possible to correlate physiological changes to the local exposure situation in the area where the fish were sampled [2]. This makes the eelpout a good candidate for environmental monitoring since it is possible to associate adverse effect to specific pollutants or pollution sources. Another beneficial characteristic is the internal fertilization where the females, after several months of pregnancy, give birth to relatively well-developed young. The possibility to link the mother with her offspring makes the eelpout suited for investigations of reproductive success, both in general and under the exposure of pollutants [3].The value of the eelpout as an important species for coastal environmental mo
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