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Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie-Nungua suburbs of Accra, Ghana
KK Addo, GI Mensah, M Bekoe, C Bonsu, ML Akyeh
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although this is a laudable idea, current trends seem to suggest that sachet drinking water could be a route of transmission of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality of sachet water popularly known as “pure water” produced and sold in the Teshie-Nungua suburbs of Accra, Ghana, one of the areas with perennial water shortage forcing inhabitants to depend on sachet water as a source of drinking water. Using simple random sampling procedures, 30 samples from 10 brands of sachet water were collected from hawkers/vendors in Teshie-Nungua (3 samples per brand). One sachet water sample was taken from each site every fortnight for six weeks in May-June 2007. The samples were analyzed using multiple tube method and biochemical assays. Results were recorded as Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform per 100ml of water. The bacteriological quality of the samples was assessed based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for drinking water. Five (16.7 %) of the samples were Excellent, 5 (16.7%) were Satisfactory, 9 (30%) were Suspicious and 11 (36.7%) were Unsatisfactory using the MPN values recorded. Six samples were contaminated with faecal coliform and two of these, (P1 and P2) were from the same brand. Escherichia coli was also detected in the two samples (P1 and P2) out of three samples from the same brand. The level of contamination could be due to inadequate treatment of water samples by the producers, improper use of filters or post-production contamination. The findings suggest the need to enforce the laws that govern the operation of such production outfits as well as educating consumers on the need to purchase sachet water from manufacturers that have been licensed to produce water and whose product bears the stamp of the Food and Drugs Board of Ghana.
Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market
KK Addo, GI Mensah, B Donkor, C Bonsu, ML Akyeh
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among the middle and high income earners as it is generally perceived to be pure, clean and of good quality. This has led to the sale of different brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market. Although disease outbreaks due to contaminated bottled water are rare, any contamination may pose a unique hazard because of the widespread distribution. Bacteriological contamination of bottled water can occur through the bottling process or as a result of storage for long periods at room temperatures or higher. Since bottled water may be consumed by a wide range of people including the elderly, children and pregnant women, its safety must always be assured. The bacteriological quality of the current 7 brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market was tested over a period of 10 weeks. Ten different batches of each brand was randomly selected and purchased from the market making a total of 70 samples. Sampling was done weekly in July-September 2007 and bacteriological examination conducted by multiple tube fermentation method to detect the presence of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. Results obtained were analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards and guidelines for drinking water. Using the Most Probable Number (MPN) Index for various combination of positive and negative results, an MPN value of less than two (<2) total and faecal coliform were recorded for all the 70 samples of bottled water. The results showed that the bacteriological quality of the seven brands of bottled water samples analyzed was within the acceptable limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption. However, more extensive surveillance of the bottled water industries and stringent regulations should be developed and enforced to ensure that the standards recorded in this study are maintained.
Microbiological quality of “Khebab” consumed in the Accra metropolis
D Agbodaze, PNA Nmai, FC Robertson, D Yeboah-Manu, K Owusu-Darko, KK Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: The study was carried out in 2003 to evaluate the microbial load in “khebab”, meat products from pork, and beef, which are vended in most of the streets and some public drinking places, either with alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks. Osu (Alata), Nima-Kotobabi and Central Accra (Adabraka – very close to the main lorry station), all in the Accra Metropolis, were selected for the investigation. The main reason for the selection of these sites was based on the population density as well as patronage for the khebab. Our main interest for this investigation was to assess the microbial load in khebab as far as enteric pathogen and other pathogenic micro-organisms reported earlier in the raw meat are concerned. Thirty samples of khebab were bought from these sampling points. Results obtained from samples at Osu recorded mean total plate count (TPC) of 5.02, Accra Central samples had TPC of 4.08 and those from Nima had TPC of 4.80 log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of khebab. Samples from Accra Central recorded the highest mean coliform count (5.12) whist samples bought from Osu and Nima recorded 4.41 and 3.70 log10 cfu/g respectively. Accra Central samples again recorded the highest faecal coliforms (4.4 log10 cfu/g) as compared to 3.98 and 3.80 log10 cfu/g for samples bought from Osu and Nima respectively. Salmonella ssp were not isolated from the samples bought at the three sampling sites. Khebab samples from sites were contaminated with E. coli, other gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus species, whose virulence factor(s) are yet to be determined. The faecal coliforms enumerated could originate from either humans or the animals slaughtered for the khebab. Staphylococcus species could originate from the vendors. Vendors have to be educated on hygienic practices which could help reduce risks of food-borne infection. Skin disinfection can be done by a thorough wash. Vendors could also be educated to stop selling their products to customers once they have bouts of diarrhoea, vomiting and “fever”. Washing of their hands with soap and water before serving their customers could also help reduce the risk of food-borne infection from eating their products.
Floristic Composition and Vegetation Structure of The KNUST Botanic Garden, Kumasi, Ghana
AK Anning, S Akyeampong, P Addo-Fordjour, KK Anti, A Kwarteng, YF Tettey
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: The diversity, relative importance, canopy height and cover of plant species in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Botanic Garden were evaluated in five 1-ha plots using a stratified random sampling technique in order to build an understanding of its floristic composition and structure in two distinct parts of the garden (cultivated and uncultivated). We recorded 184 species which belonged to 146 genera, 51 families and six growth forms. The most dominant tree species in the garden were Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Hevea brasiliensis (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. and Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don. with a combined importance index of 60.09 (20 % relative importance). The differences in importance value indices of species between the cultivated and uncultivated areas of the garden were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05), suggesting the presence of conducive growth environments for plants in both areas. The most dominant families were Fabaceae, Moraceae, Arecaceae and Euphorbiaceae whilst trees were the most predominant growth forms (62.5 %). Average crown height and percentage canopy were 28.8 ± 8.81 m and 66.4 ± 8.26 % respectively. These results show the floristic richness of the KNUST botanic garden and underscore the garden\'s potential as a centre for ex-situ conservation beside its traditional roles in education, research and recreation.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ghana: The role of laboratory training
KK Addo, D Yeboah-Manu, M Dan-Dzide, K Owusu-darko, P Caulley, GI Mensah, M Minamikawa, C Lienhardt, FA Bonsu, D Ofori-Adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: The laboratory is considered the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control programme. International review of Ghana’s programme in the late nineties identified the laboratory services as the weakest component. Sputum smear microscopy (SSM) being the main method of diagnosing pulmonary TB in Ghana, the training objectives were to: (i) strengthen the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel on SSM (ii) impart necessary techniques in biosafety and (iii) introduce a Quality Assurance (QA) system in order to strengthen SSM services. Methods: Personnel were selected for training during a nationwide situation analysis of SSM centres in 2000/2001. Four training sessions on SSM/QA were held between 2001/2004. Results: A total of 80 personnel were trained: 10 regional TB coordinators and 70 laboratory personnel. The participants upon return to their respective regions also organized training within their districts. This approach resulted in another 100 district TB coordinators and 200 laboratory personnel being trained. Improvement in smear preparation, staining and reading ability of the participants were observed during the post-test and subsequent visit to their respective laboratories. The training has led to strengthening of TB laboratory services in the country and has contributed to increase in case detection from 10,745 in 2000 to 11,827 in 2004 and 14,022 in 2008. It was observed during the post-training follow-up and quarterly supervision visits that morale of the personnel was high. Conclusion: Continuous training and re-training of laboratory personnel on SSM and QA at regular intervals do play an important role for effective and efficient TB control programme.
Effects of Teachers Level of Education and Experience on Teacher-Child Interactions in Early Childhood Institutions  [PDF]
Nana Yaa Nyarko, Hillar Addo
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411131

Early childhood care and development (ECCD) in Ghana have received attention in the lat decade. To ensure quality of instruction and build capacity of early childhood teachers and caregivers, the National Nursery Teachers’ Training Centre was set up by the government to offer specialized training in nursery education for teachers and nursery attendants. Universities and the Colleges of Education have been mandated to train teachers for early childhood education. This study therefore sought to find out the effects of level of education and years of experience of teachers on their interactions with children (3 - 5) in early-childhood institutions in Ghana using the Caregiver Child Interaction Scale (r = 0.77). The sample (N = 103; Female 99%): made up of teachers from thirty-one preschools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana were observed during their normal classroom routine. There appeared not to be any statistically significant difference between the teachers’ level of education and years of experience on the interaction scores.

Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric outcomes
VN Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to December 31st 2009. Setting: A private specialist hospital. Methods: The records of patients starting antenatal care in the first trimester, attending at least four clinics and delivering singletons from 37 completed weeks up to 42 weeks gestation were analysed. Patients’ booking gestational age, height, weight and obstetric and neonatal outcomes at delivery were noted. Results: The total number of deliveries was 2,391 out of which 1755 (72.4%) were analysed. The overweight and obese group compared to the normal were significantly older, shorter, weighed more at booking and gained more weight during pregnancy. The overweight or obese were significantly more likely to have induction of labour and be delivered by caesarean section compared to the normal. Maternal and neonatal outcomes which were more significant in the overweight and obese were macrosomia, stillbirth, perineal trauma, post-partum haemorrhage and retained placenta. Conclusions: Most deliveries in the two BMI groups resulted in normal weight babies. Overweight and Obesity is associated with significantly increased incidence of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. It is recommended that further studies involving larger samples comparable to those done in western countries are carried out.
Pregnant women's knowledge of and attitudes to HIV testing at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi
VN Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: A questionnaire survey on the knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in pregnancy of 334 antenatal attendants at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) was conducted. The survey showed that HIV/AIDS is recognized as a life-threatening condition and is mainly acquired through unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner, use of unsterile sharp instruments and blood transfusion. Knowledge about mother to child transmission (MTCT) was lacking. The majority of women who had done the test did so as a pre-requisite for church blessing of their marriage. VCT would be acceptable especially when anonymity is ensured and drug treatment is available for mother and child should the pregnant woman test positive for HIV.
The impact of DNA chip technology on molecular medicine
KK Wilgenbus
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/ar151
Advances in the field of nanooncology
KK Jain
BMC Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-83
Abstract: Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale, that is, at the level of atoms, molecules and supramolecular structures. Given the inherent nanoscale functional components of living cells, it was inevitable that nanotechnology would be applied in biotechnology settings, giving rise to the term nanobiotechnology, that is, the application of nanotechnology in the life sciences. Nanobiotechnology is already starting to show the promise of an impact on health care. Nanomedicine is defined as the application of nanobiotechnology to medicine and is based on the use of nanoscale materials and devices for diagnosis and drug delivery as well as for the development of advanced pharmaceuticals referred to as nanopharmaceuticals [1]. Nanobiotechnology is also being applied to refine surgery from microsurgery to nanosurgery. Examples include the construction of nanoscale robots, nanobots, for navigating the human body to detect as well as treat various diseases, and cell surgery using nanodevices and nanolasers. During the past few years, considerable progress has been made in the application of nanobiotechnology in cancer, that is, nanooncology, which is currently the most important chapter of nanomedicine.Nanobiotechnology plays an important role in the discovery of biomarkers of cancer. Several drugs in development for cancer are based on nanobiotechnology, and a few of these are already approved. Nanobiotechnology-based devices are in development as aids to cancer surgery. Finally, nanobiotechnology is playing an important role in personalized therapy for cancer. The impact of nanobiotechnology on oncology is shown schematically in Figure 1.Nanobiotechnologies have extended the limits of and refined molecular diagnostics [2]. Nanobiotechnology offers a novel set of tools for the detection of cancer and contributes to early detection of cancer as follows:1. It can complement existing
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