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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6999 matches for " KARL ROBINSON "
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Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus: a comparison of impact on health-related quality of life in patients presenting to foot surgeons in Australia
Mark F Gilheany, Karl B Landorf, Priscilla Robinson
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-1-14
Abstract: Foot health status was measured in 120 participants using the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), a validated 0 – 100 point health status instrument. All participants had presented for surgical advice regarding hallux valgus/rigidus. The mean age of participants was 48.0 years (SD ± 14.3, range 19 – 79).In the sample, 68% of participants were diagnosed with hallux valgus and 32% with hallux rigidus. Participants with hallux rigidus had greater levels of pain and functional limitation compared with hallux valgus. The mean difference for pain was 13.8 points (95% CI 4.6 to 22.9) and the mean difference for function was 15.0 points (95% CI 5.3 to 24.7). Both conditions result in similarly negative levels of impact on shoe fit and overall foot health.This study found measurable differences in foot health status between hallux valgus and hallux rigidus in participants presenting for surgical consultation. While both appear to have a negative impact on health status, hallux rigidus has a more significant impact.Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus are two common pathologies that affect the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Both conditions can impact the joint to such an extent that reconstructive surgery may be required. Surgery to the 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint is likely to be the most common joint surgery performed on the foot [1-4] and is the 4th most common joint to be operated on behind the knee, hip and low back [2]. While affecting the same joint, the clinical and pathological profiles of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus are quite dissimilar.Hallux valgus is a deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It is characterised by lateral drift of the great toe in association with joint subluxation. Occurrence rates for the condition reported in the literature vary, depending on the age of the participants investigated. Mann and Coughlin reported the frequency of hallux valgus in the adult shoe wearing population as 33% [5]. Similarly, Dawson et al observed a
The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) as a tool for animal health applications
Gianluca Franceschini,Timothy P. Robinson,Karl Morteo,Dario Dentale
Veterinaria Italiana , 2009,
Abstract: Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA) has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS). GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW), mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA), disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.
Characterizing Rocky and Gaseous Exoplanets with 2-meter Class Space-based Coronagraphs
Tyler D. Robinson,Karl R. Stapelfeldt,Mark S. Marley
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Several concepts now exist for small, space-based missions to directly characterize exoplanets in reflected light. Here, we develop an instrument noise model suitable for studying the spectral characterization potential of a coronagraph-equipped, space-based telescope. We adopt a baseline set of telescope and instrument parameters appropriate for near-future planned missions like WFIRST-AFTA, including a 2 m diameter primary aperture, an operational wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 um, and an instrument spectral resolution of 70, and apply our baseline model to a variety of spectral models of different planet types, including Earth twins, Jupiter twins, and warm and cool Jupiters and Neptunes. With our exoplanet spectral models, we explore wavelength-dependent planet-star flux ratios for main sequence stars of various effective temperatures, and discuss how coronagraph inner and outer working angle constraints will influence the potential to study different types of planets. For planets most favorable to spectroscopic characterization, we study the integration times required to achieve moderate signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We also explore the sensitivity of the integration times required to either detect the bottom or presence of key absorption bands to coronagraph raw contrast performance, exozodiacal light levels, and the distance to the planetary system. Decreasing detector quantum efficiency at longer visible wavelengths makes the detection of water vapor in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets extremely challenging, and also hinders detections of the 0.89 um methane band. Additionally, most modeled observations have noise dominated by dark current, indicating that improving CCD performance could substantially drive down requisite integration times. Finally, we briefly discuss the extension of our models to a more distant future Large UV-Optical-InfraRed (LUVOIR) mission.
The Dynamic Brain: From Spiking Neurons to Neural Masses and Cortical Fields
Gustavo Deco ,Viktor K. Jirsa,Peter A. Robinson,Michael Breakspear,Karl Friston
PLOS Computational Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000092
Abstract: The cortex is a complex system, characterized by its dynamics and architecture, which underlie many functions such as action, perception, learning, language, and cognition. Its structural architecture has been studied for more than a hundred years; however, its dynamics have been addressed much less thoroughly. In this paper, we review and integrate, in a unifying framework, a variety of computational approaches that have been used to characterize the dynamics of the cortex, as evidenced at different levels of measurement. Computational models at different space–time scales help us understand the fundamental mechanisms that underpin neural processes and relate these processes to neuroscience data. Modeling at the single neuron level is necessary because this is the level at which information is exchanged between the computing elements of the brain; the neurons. Mesoscopic models tell us how neural elements interact to yield emergent behavior at the level of microcolumns and cortical columns. Macroscopic models can inform us about whole brain dynamics and interactions between large-scale neural systems such as cortical regions, the thalamus, and brain stem. Each level of description relates uniquely to neuroscience data, from single-unit recordings, through local field potentials to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), and magnetoencephalogram (MEG). Models of the cortex can establish which types of large-scale neuronal networks can perform computations and characterize their emergent properties. Mean-field and related formulations of dynamics also play an essential and complementary role as forward models that can be inverted given empirical data. This makes dynamic models critical in integrating theory and experiments. We argue that elaborating principled and informed models is a prerequisite for grounding empirical neuroscience in a cogent theoretical framework, commensurate with the achievements in the physical sciences.
Expression of Two N1 Clones with Single Amino Acid Dissimilarity of Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2012,
Abstract: Two clones of N1 gene derived from isolate A/Dk/Tangerang/Bbalitvet-ACIAR-TE11/2007 (H5N1) exhibit single mismatch of amino acid sequence at position 242 that is threonine and methionine for the clone #3 and #5, respectively. In order to evaluate the effect of the amino acid substitution, these clones were inserted into two different expression vectors that are pEGFP-C1 and pcDNA-3.3 TOPO TA cloning. Subsequently, the respective recombinant clones were transfected into eukaryotic cells, including CEF, RK13 and VERO using Lipofectamine ‘plus’ reagent. As a result, the clone #3 retaining atypical sequence showed lower expression level rather than the clone #15 in both vectors and all type of cells. The 3D conformational modelling revealed that the mutation occurs in the inner part of glycoprotein embedded within envelope or matrix. Therefore, the missense mutation seems has no effect on the antigenic properties of neuraminidase but this substitution by any means causes lethal mutagenesis in the individual gene expression by reducing level of protein transcript.
Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants: Redefining the Role of the Nurse to Improve Patient Care  [PDF]
Marlene Robinson
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.512121
Abstract: Thromboembolic disorders and their associated long-term complications place a burden on patients, healthcare systems and society. Non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (OACs), including rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban and edoxaban, are effective for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. The increasing uptake of the non-VKA OACs in primary care lessens the burden of care and allows for an easier transition of treatment from hospital to home. This transformation in terms of patient management has resulted in the need to empower nurses working in this field to endorse management strategies with a focus on patient education and long-term management (i.e. assessment of compliance, scheduling follow-up visits). Management of both venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation requires a multidisciplinary team approach and, looking to the future, nurses are likely to have a key role at the heart of the thrombosis team. This review aims to provide nurses with the confidence to manage patients with thromboembolic disorders, and highlights the importance of responsible non-VKA OAC use and the impact that this can have on improving patient care and outcomes.
Bell’s Theorem and Instantaneous Influences at a Distance  [PDF]
Karl Hess
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.98099
Abstract: An explicit model-example is presented to simulate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiments without invoking instantaneous influences at a distance. The model-example, together with the interpretation of past experiments by Kwiat and coworkers, uncovers logical inconsistencies in the application of Bell’s theorem to actual EPR experiments. The inconsistencies originate from topological-combinatorial assumptions that are both necessary and sufficient to derive all Bell-type inequalities including those of Wigner-d’Espagnat and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt. The model-example circumvents these inconsistencies.
PCRR Based Bandpass Filter for C and L+U Bands of ITU-T G.694.2 CWDM Systems  [PDF]
S. Robinson, R. Nakkeeran
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2011.13024
Abstract: A two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based Bandpass Filter (BPF) is designed to cover C and L+U bands of Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) systems. It is devised with two quasi waveguides and a circular PCRR. The simulation results are obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The Photonic Band Gap (PBG) is calculated by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The BPFs allow the entire C-band (BPF1) and L+U bands (BPF2), which are extended from 1530 to 1565 nm (C band) and 1565 to 1675 nm (L+U bands). The computed bandwidth of BPF1 and BPF2 is 32 nm and 97 nm respectively. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the BPF1 is around 12.8 µm × 11.4 µm and 11.4 µm × 11.4 µm for BPF2.
The Conservation of Energy Space-Time Metric for Space Outside Matter  [PDF]
V. N. E. Robinson
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48149

By using experimentally determined measurements of potential energy together with the principle of conservation of energy and solving directly, the space-time geometry equation for space outside matter is obtained. That equation fits all the experimental observations that support the accepted Schwarzschild metric, yet predicts there isn’t a singularity at the Schwarzschild radius. The accepted Schwarzschild metric is the first approximation of the conservation of energy space-time metric. No observation yet made can distinguish between the predictions of the two metrics.

Gender Differences in Experiencing US Daily Life  [PDF]
John P. Robinson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.56068

The American Time-Use Survey (ATUS), conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, has been collecting data on how Americans spend their time since 2003, using the method of the daily time diary. In these diaries, survey respondents are asked to recall all of their activities across the previous 24 hours. In 2010, the ATUS began supplementing these simple activity accounts with ratings on five psychological states (sad, tired, stress, pain and happy) from a Social Well-Being (SWB) index designed to capture how these respondents feel as they engage in these daily activities. Thus, this ATUS study basically provides a continuous national monitor of Americans’ everyday subjective quality of life (QOL)—and in “real time” as personally experienced by respondents. Analysis of these 2010-12 ATUS SWB ratings from more than 12,000 Americans aged 15 and older reveal that women score significantly higher than men on all five factors, even though only one of the adjectives (happy) was in the positive direction. Thus, US women described their daily activities as more stressful, tiring, sad and painful, but at the same time also describing their activities as making them feel happier (suggesting that women see their lives as more engaging, intense or energizing). In order to control for this gender difference, a simple scale was derived from two of the items that conveyed basically the same emotional state, namely happy and sad. When these ratings on two items were paired, virtually no gender difference was found; nor were many gender differences found when they rated these feelings on the same activity. However, there were dramatic subjective differences across activities that were largely shared by both men and women, with child play, religious, volunteer and fitness activities rated near the top of enjoyment and with medical, housework and work activities nearer the bottom. These results seem generally consistent with enjoyment ratings in earlier national time-use surveys.

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