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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139179 matches for " K. Weaver "
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IL-10 Inhibits LPS-Induced Expression of miR-147 in Murine Macrophages  [PDF]
Leah N. Cardwell, Brian K. Weaver
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.44032
Abstract: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mediates an anti-inflammatory response that constrains immune responses and limits inflammation-associated pathology. IL-10 does so, in part, by selectively inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression induced in macrophages in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. The IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response is executed through the activation of STAT3 leading to induction of target genes referred to as IL-10-induced genes. As miRNAs have emerged as important negative regulators of gene expression in various systems, we sought to address whether the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response acts through regulated expression of miRNA genes. Using quantitative PCR-based arrays, we examined 140 miRNA genes with putative roles in inflammation for changes in expression in response to IL-10 and lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) in primary mouse macrophages. IL-10 stimulation resulted in the inhibition of miR-147 expression induced in response to LPS, while having a potentiating effect on the induction of miR-455. miR-147 is the second TLR-induced miRNA, in addition to miR-155, identified to be counter-regulated by IL-10. Its suppression by IL-10 suggests that miR-147 may have an unknown pro-inflammatory function in TLR-triggered macrophages. The results extend the notion that IL-10 selectively regulates expression of miRNA genes, and that miRNA-mediated pathways are a component of the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response.
X-ray Observations of AGN at Intermediate to High Redshift
K. A. Weaver
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1063/1.58607
Abstract: The cores of active galactic nuclei (AGN) harbor some of the most extreme conditions of matter and energy in the Universe. One of the major goals of high-energy astrophysics is to probe these extreme environments in the vicinity of supermassive black holes, which are intimately linked to the mechanisms that produce the continuum emission in AGN. X-ray studies seek to understand the physics responsible for the continuum emission, its point of origin, how nuclear activity is fueled, and how supermassive black holes evolve. The key to finding answers to these questions lies in measuring the intrinsic luminosities and spectral shapes, the relation of these properties to other wavebands, and how the source properties change with redshift. This article reviews X-ray observations of AGN from redshifts of ~0.1-3 with the goal of summarizing our current knowledge of their X-ray spectral characteristics. Results are evaluated in terms of their robustness and are examined in the light of current theoretical predictions of energy release via processes associated with the accretion mechanism. A possible evolutionary scenario is discussed, along with the importance of AGN studies at high redshift as they relate to the total energetics of the Universe.
Probing Dense Matter in the cores of AGN: Observations with RXTE and ASCA
K. A. Weaver
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1434667
Abstract: Preliminary results from an X-ray spectral study of Seyfert 1 galaxies with ASCA and RXTE are presented. From an analysis of X-ray reprocessing features of Compton reflection and Fe K-alpha fluorescence, it is found that iron line strength is not necessarily a good predictor of the amount of reflection. The variability properties of Fe K-alpha and reflection do not necessarily scale together and substantial decoupling of the behavior of the reprocessed flux with respect to continuum variability is common. Such trends suggest the presence of multiple and/or complex regions of dense matter in AGN cores and that standard accretion disk models drastically oversimplify reality.
Loving her into well-being one day at a time: Narratives of caring for daughters with eating disorders  [PDF]
Kathryn Weaver
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.24059
Abstract: When a child is diagnosed with an eating disorder, parents are expected to help the child recover. Yet, parents often feel under-prepared and alone, their experiences inadequately known to healthcare professionals. The research aim was to examine the meaning to parents of caring for a child with an eating disorder. Qualitative interviews with 29 parents were analyzed and the parents’ experiences were represented by a collective story of loving her into well-being one day at a time which consisted of two themes: Running on nerves and caring through transformational activism. Running on nerves included threads of feeling lost, traumatized, scarred, and disengaged that mitigated as parents engaged in transformational activism processes directed toward helping themselves, their child, and other parents and children. The findings illustrate the importance of hearing parents’ stories in order to create supportive healing environments and to build capacity within families and health care systems.
Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections
Holmes,King K.; Levine,Ruth; Weaver,Marcia;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000600012
Abstract: in june 2000, the united states national institutes of health (nih) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (stis). the review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of hiv to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other stis was considered to be insufficient. we review the findings of prospective studies published after june 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing stis. we searched medline for publications in english and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. these prospective studies, published since june 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of stis, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. while no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (hpv) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical hpv infection in women and with regression of hpv-associated penile lesions in men. research findings available since the nih review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against stis. although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of stis within populations.
Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas
Stadler,Teodoro; Buteler,Micaela; Weaver,David K.;
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2010,
Abstract: sustainable agriculture demands new environmentally friendly pesticides that adhere to strict international regulations. part of the research on new biorational pesticides focuses on natural products such as plant extracts, oils, and inorganic insecticides. insecticidal dusts represent the oldest group of substances used by men for pest management, and their efficacy is based on physical phenomena. with the advent of synthetic pesticides, insecticidal dusts were used as carriers for other active ingredients in formulated insecticides. organic dusts made a come-back as insecticides with the discovery of hidrophobic kaolin in the 90's. recently, the discovery of nanoinsecticides brings new alternatives to expand the spectrum of applications of inorganic dusts. development and registry of nanomaterials is based on the idea that they are not new materials, although they have different properties than the products with the same chemical structure, given that novel properties emerge from products when they are at the nanoscale. for example, reactivity, specific area, electric charge and quantum effects may differ. these substances with new properties are promising as tools for crop protection and food production, opening new frontiers for nanoinsecticides in pest management. for example, nanostructured alumina has been shown to have insecticidal properties, and it possesses some of the characteristics of an ideal insecticide, given that it is a natural product, not reactive, economical, with reduced probabilities of generating resistance in insects, and it is more effective than other commercially available insecticidal dusts. the current use of nanotechnology in a wide array of fields and products as well as the recent discovery of their potential in crop protection suggests that nanomaterials have a great potential for development of new products that will impact agriculture. given the recent and widespread use of nanomaterials, there is an urgent need to study the impa
Clinical use of topical thrombin as a surgical hemostat
Wesley K Lew,Fred A Weaver
Biologics: Targets and Therapy , 2008,
Abstract: Wesley K Lew1, Fred A Weaver21University of Southern California, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2CardioVascular Thoracic Institute at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: When surgical ligation of bleeding fails, or is not possible, surgeons rely on a number of hemostatic aids, including thrombin. This review discusses the history, pharmacology and clinical application of thrombin as a surgical hemostat. The initial thrombin was bovine in origin, but its use has been complicated by the formation of antibodies that cross react with human coagulation factors. This has been associated with life threatening bleeding and in some circumstances anaphylaxis and death. Human thrombin, isolated from pooled plasma of donors, has been developed in an effort to minimize these risks, but its downside is the potential of transmitting blood-borne pathogens and limited availability. Recently a recombinant thrombin has been developed and approved for use by the FDA. It has the advantage of being minimally antigenic and devoid of the risk if viral transmission. Thrombin is often used in conjunction with other hemostatic aids, including absorbable agents (like gelfoam, collagen, and cellulose), and with fibrinogen in fibrin glues. The last part of this review will discuss these agents in detail, and review their clinical applications.Keywords: bovine, recombinant, human, thrombin, antigenicity, antibodies
Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control
Teodoro Stadler,Micaela Buteler,David K. Weaver
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2010,
Abstract: La agricultura de bajo impacto ambiental demanda nuevos pesticidas que deben ajustarse a las exigentes normativas internacionales. Parte de la búsqueda de nuevos productos bio-racionales se desarrolla por fuera del marco de la síntesis orgánica, explorando diferentes sustancias de origen natural como extractos vegetales, aceites insecticidas e insecticidas inorgánicos. Los polvos insecticidas representan el grupo más antiguo de sustancias utilizadas por el hombre para el control de plagas, cuya eficacia se basa principalmente en fenómenos físicos. Con el advenimiento de los insecticidas de síntesis, los polvos insecticidas fueron relegados por casi cinco décadas a la función de carriers de principios activos dentro de los insecticidas formulados. Con el desarrollo del caolín hidrófobo en la década de los 90′, los polvos inorgánicos resurgieron como insecticidas "per se", y, recientemente, a partir del descubrimiento de los nanoinsecticidas, afloran nuevas alternativas para expandir el espectro de aplicaciones de los polvos inorgánicos. El desarrollo y registro de nuevos productos a partir de nanomateriales manufacturados se basa en el paradigma "lo mismo pero diferente", ya que éstos difieren de las sustancias con idéntica estructura y composición química respecto de algunas propiedades como reactividad,área especifica, efectos cuánticos, carga eléctrica, etc. Estas sustancias con nuevas propiedades también se destacan como herramientas muy prometedoras para la protección de cultivos y la producción de alimentos y abren nuevas fronteras para el manejo de plagas con nanoinsecticidas. La alúmina nanoestructurada exhibe varias de las propiedades del insecticida ideal, ya que se trata de un producto natural desde el punto de vista químico, no reactivo, económico, con reducidas probabilidades de provocar resistencia en los insectos y su eficacia es mayor que la de otros polvos insecticidas como el caolín o la tierra de diatomeas. La masiva aparición de productos a base de nanomateriales en el mercado ha superado la velocidad a la que se evalúa su potencial impacto, de modo que la aplicación avanza por delante de la regulación para su uso. Esto sugiere la urgente necesidad de investigar los potenciales riesgos que surgen del empleo de estos productos en general, de los nanoinsecticidas en particular y sus efectos sobre organismos no blancos, así como sobre las nuevas tecnologías de aplicación más seguras y eficientes. Los actuales niveles de aplicación de nanopartículas y los desarrollos por venir, sugieren que la nanotecnología tendrá un efecto directo sobre
Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections
Holmes King K.,Levine Ruth,Weaver Marcia
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004,
Abstract: In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. Evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other STIs was considered to be insufficient. We review the findings of prospective studies published after June 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STIs. We searched Medline for publications in English and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. These prospective studies, published since June 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of STIs, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. Condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. While no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical HPV infection in women and with regression of HPV-associated penile lesions in men. Research findings available since the NIH review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against STIs. Although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of STIs within populations.
Biological Control of the Weed Sesbania exaltata Using a Microsclerotia Formulation of the Bioherbicide Colletotrichum truncatum  [PDF]
Clyde D. Boyette, Hamed K. Abbas, Bobbie Johnson, Robert E. Hoagland, Mark A. Weaver
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.518282
Abstract:

Colletotrichum truncatum, grown on rice grain (3 to 4 weeks, 22°C to 24°C) produced a fungus-infested rice mixture of microsclerotia and conidia (spores) in a ratio of ~9:1, respectively. Greenhouse tests of this formulation (0.4 to 50 mg finely-ground fungus-rice product) which applied pre-emergence to 5 cm2 of soil surface, caused 22% to 96% hemp sesbania plant mortality, after 14 days. Post-emergence treatment (fungus-rice aqueous formulation; 2.4 × 105 microsclerotia ml-1, 30% unrefined corn oil and 0.2% Silwet L-77 surfactant) of weeds surviving the pre-emergence application, resulted in 93% mortality, after 14 days. Based on greenhouse results, field tests were undertaken: 1) pre-emergence treatment (fungus-rice formulation at 2.4 × 105 microsclerotia cm-2), 2) post-emergence (fungus-rice product in 30% unrefined corn oil, 0.2% Silwet) only treatment, applied 15 days after planting and 3) pre-emergence treatment followed by post-emergence treatment (fungus-rice product in 30% unrefined corn oil, 0.2% Silwet) applied 15 days after planting to surviving weeds. Control treatments were: 1) autoclaved rice product sans fungus, 2) unrefined corn oil (30% unrefined corn

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