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Neurodegenerative changes in different regions of brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of rats treated with sodium fluoride
P. Yugandhar Reddy,K. Pratap Reddy,K. Praveen Kumar
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Fluoride is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and alter the structure and function of neural tissue. There are few authoritative reports on neurodegenerative changes in hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve in fluoride intoxication. We report the alterations in the structure of neuronal tissue after chronic administration of sodium fluoride (for 60days) to rats. Twelve male Wistar rats were divided equally into two groups: one group received 20 ppm of sodium fluoride (NaF) and the other group (which served as a control) received tap water for 60days.The body weights and organic somatic index of brain in the sodium fluoride treated animals were significantly reduced, relative to the control group. Tissue fluoride levels of hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve, all increased significantly in fluoride treated rats. Electron microscopy of the hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve showed neurodegenerative changes in the NaF treated group compared to controls. Axon deterioration, myelin sheath degeneration and dark cells with scanty cytoplasm were observed in spinal cord and sciatic nerve in the treated group. Other distinctive morphological alterations observed were: vacuolated swollen mitochondria in neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum; myelinated fibers with breaks in continuity (axon partly preserved and partly vacuolated) in hippocampus; myelin splitting and vacuolated schwann cell within the cerebellum and sciatic nerve respectively. Thus, neurodegeneration was clearly evident in the hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve on fluoride exposure.
THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS
Sharanappa K Godiganur,Ch Suryanarayana Murthy,Rana Pratap Reddy
Thermal Science , 2010, DOI: tsci1004957g
Abstract: Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel
Effect of Finger Millet and Sorghum Replacing Corn in Presence of Soy Oil / Fish Oil and Enzymes on Performance of Broilers
K. Venkata Reddy,V. Malathi,B.S. Venkatarami Reddy,K.S. Pratap Kumar
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: A trial was conducted in commercial day old broiler chicks to study the effect of replacing corn with finger millet and sorghum and supplementation of soy oil / fish oil and Non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes to these diets. Basal diet was formulated using corn, soy bean meal and pea nut extraction. In the test diets, 50% of the corn was replaced with either finger millet or sorghum or equal parts of the both and then supplemented with soy oil / fish oil and enzyme mixture. Weekly body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability were recorded. Body weight slightly improved in the test diets than the control. Compared to the soy oil, fish oil was better in improving body weight, feed efficiency and livability. Though supplementation of enzymes did not significantly improve body weight and feed efficiency, slight numerical improvement was noticed in fish oil supplemented groups.
A Modified E Shaped Patch Antenna For Mimo Systems
K. Jagadeesh Babu,Dr.K.Sri Rama Krishna,,Dr.L.Pratap Reddy
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: A compact E shaped patch antenna is proposed in the present work, which can be used for Multiple Input Multiple output (MIMO) systems. The modified E shaped patch antenna proposed in this paper offers improved directivity, bandwidth, and return loss characteristics compared to normal E shaped antenna. The antenna system resonates at 5.36GHz and 5.89GHz frequencies for VSWR≤2 which can be used for WiMAX (Wireless interoperability for microwave access) applications. The simulation results of return loss, VSWR, gain and radiation pattern are presented.
Automatic Road Extraction based on Level Set Normalized Cuts and Mean Shift Methods
M Rajeswari,K S Gurumurthy,L.Pratap Reddy,S N Omkar
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: The Urban population is growing so fast in India that planning officials are racing to keep up with urban development .Use of geographic information like satellite imagery helps urban planners manage the ever-changing urban environment accurately and efficiently. Roads are one of the most important features to be extracted from Satellite imagery for urban planning. Manual extraction of roads is operator dependent and time-consuming task. Hence Automatic extraction of roads from high resolution satellite images has grown in importance in the last decade. An approach for automatic road extraction from high resolution based on Level set, Normalized Cuts and Mean Shift algorithms is developed. Initially the image is preprocessed to improve the tolerance by reducing the noises (buildings etc.,) then roads are extracted based on the three methods. Finally the comparison of accuracy of automatic road extraction of three methods is quantitatively assessed with manually extracted reference data.
Higher Body Mass Index is an Independent Predictor of Left Atrial Enlargement  [PDF]
Prasanna Venkatesh Kumar, Aman Mundi, Gloria Caldito, Pratap C. Reddy
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.25091
Abstract: Background: The influence of obesity on the cardiac geometry is less clear. Our objective was to determine if body mass index (BMI) was an independent predictor of left atrial enlargement (LAE) relative to LV thickness, dimension and function. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 90 consecutive patients with available echocardiographic data was performed. Patients were categorized into those with LAE (defined as >4.0 cm in transverse dimension by M-mode, n = 36) and those with normal LA size (n = 54). The clinical and echocardiographic variables were compared between the two groups. Results: Compared to patients with normal LA size, patients with LAE had significantly higher BMI (32 ± 8 vsi ± 8, p = 0.006), greater LV thickness, increased LV cavity dimension, and depressed LV systolic function. BMI was a strong and independent predictor of LAE. Left ventricular thickness and LV end-diastolic (LVED) dimension were other independent predictors of LAE. After adjusting for the significant effects of LV thickness and LV diameter, every unit increase in BMI resulted in an 8% increase in the odds of having LAE. Conclusions: 1) Higher BMI is an independent predictor of LAE. 2) Presence of LV enlargement and LV systolic dysfunction in these patients suggests that in the face of higher BMI, cardiac workload may exceed the compensatory LV hypertrophy and 3) LAE may be a consequence of the greater force developed by the LA to fill the LV.
Performance Evaluation of Raster Based Shape Vectors in Object Recognition
Akbar Khan,Pratap Reddy L
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V9P274
Abstract: Object recognition is still an impediment in the field of computer vision and multimedia retrieval.Defining an object model is a critical task. Shape information of an object play a critical role in the process of object recognition. Extraction of boundary information of an object from the multimedia data and classifying this information with associated objects is the primary step towards object recognition. Rasters play an important role while computing object boundary. The trade-off lies with the dimensionality of the object versus computational cost while achieving maximum efficiency. In this treatise an attempt is made to evaluate the performance of circular and spiral raster models in terms of average retrieval efficiency and computational cost.
Design of 2D-Bootlace Lens with Five Focal Feed for Multiple Beam Forming  [PDF]
Ravi Pratap Singh Kushwah, P. K. Singhal
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.32007
Abstract: Utility of microwave bootlace lens is well established. For broadband and wide scanning network, it is required to op-timize and use features of this lens for better communication and scanning device. This report presents the design of a compact 2D bootlace lens with five focal feed for multiple beam forming. This design will help in reducing phase error and will provide power efficiency and better resolution during target tracking. This design will provide better aperture efficiency and scanning angle.
Comparative Analysis of Parabolic Bootlace Lens and Conventional Lens Approach  [PDF]
Ravi Pratap Singh Kushwah, P. K. Singhal
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.32011
Abstract: In this paper, parabolic refocusing lens is designed for the same requirements as Rotman lens. Comparison of results obtained with the parabolic refocusing lens with those obtained for the Rotman lens is also given.
Role of free tissue transfer in management of chronic venous ulcer
Reddy K,Reddy D
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2004,
Abstract: Most of the venous ulcers will heal with the treatment of primary venous problem. But a few patients will have refractory, recurrent chronic venous ulcers causing inconvenience to the patients in terms of loss of productive working hours. There is no standard method available for treatment of this chronic problem. Our modality of treatment includes wide excision of ulcer, ligation of incompetent perforators and coverage of defect with well vascularized tissue by free tissue transfer. We have analyzed this form of treatment in five patients with satisfactory result.
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