Abstract:
Kenya is an ethnically diverse country comprising over forty ethnic groups. While the diversity should make up the richness of culture and ways of life, the ‘tribe' mentality is the root cause of many problems that Sub-Sahara African nations face. In Africa, different ethnic groups compete for national resource such as “land, political power, natural resources, social and economic power” (Osore 2008), and “tribalism still infuses all aspects of society” (Wax 2005). Sadly, higher education does not seem to be an exception. That could be the reason why in the past, the Kenyan Government used to exercise a lot of control over the public universities in terms of contents of curriculum, hiring and firing of staff and lecturers, approving conference and seminars, among many others, in order to meet its own political ends, thus curtailing academic freedom (Mwiria 2001). After the introduction of multipartism in 1992, the situation began changing with the State and other political formations now competing to influence the educational sector. For instance, some months before the general election in December 2007, many of the student bodies of the public universities' were reportedly re-aligned to one of three major political forces of the time, which were aligned to some ethnic groups. “Tribalism and ethnicity have almost become the second name for the student body,” and “the tribal politics being played out between the ODM and the PNU1 groupings have been extended wholesale to the student community”2. During the last General Election, the two leading political parties of the time approached the Students Affairs Council, the students' Affairs body at United States International University (USIU), a private university, but the student officials declined to be associated with any of the political parties, as it was against the policy of the university3. Consequently, there was no election campaign that took place on the USIU campus. This paper attempts to investigate whether or not ethnicity is a determinant of student learning at university in a country like Kenya that is rocked by ethnic violence. Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) 2009: pp. 76-89

Abstract:
Relativistic thermodynamics is generalized to accommodate four dimensional rotation in a flat spacetime. An extended body can be in equilibrium when its each element moves along a Killing flow. There are three types of basic Killing flows in a flat spacetime, each of which corresponds to translational motion, spatial rotation, and constant linear acceleration; spatial rotation and constant linear acceleration are regarded as four dimensional rotation. Translational motion has been mainly investigated in the past literature of relativistic thermodynamics. Thermodynamics of the other two is derived in the present paper.

Abstract:
It has been shown three different views in relativistic thermodynamics can be derived from the basic formulation proposed by van Kampen and Israel. The way to decompose energy-momentum into the reversible and irreversible parts is not uniquely determined, and different choices result in different views. The effect of difference in the definition of a finite volume is also considered.

Abstract:
The energy source of the radiation in Unruh/Hawking process is investigated with emphasis on the particle number definition based on conservation laws. It has been shown that the particle radiation is not the result of pair creation by the gravitational force, but the result of difference in the conservation laws to define the particle number. The origin of the radiated energy in the distant future corresponds to the zero point oscillations with infinitely large wave numbers. This result implies the need of reconsideration on the scenario of black hole evaporation.

Abstract:
A covariant way to define the relativistic entropy of a finite object has been proposed. The energy-momentum of an object with finite volume is not a covariant physical entity because of the relativity of simultaneity. A way to correctly handle this situation is introduced and applied to the calculation of entropy. The result together with van Kampen-Israel theory gives simple and self-consistent relativistic thermodynamics.

Abstract:
A self-gravitating cylindrical domain wall is considered as an example of non-spherical wall to clarify the interaction between a domain wall and gravitational waves. We consider the time evolution from a momentarily static initial configuration within an infinitesimal time interval using the metric junction formalism. We found that the wall with a large initial radius radiates large amplitude of the gravitational waves and undergoes its large back reaction.

Abstract:
The equilibrium state of a relativistic gas has been calculated based on the maximum entropy principle. Though the relativistic equilibrium state was long believed to be the Juttner distribution, a number of papers have been published in recent years proposing alternative equilibrium states. However, some of these papers do not pay enough attention to the covariance of distribution functions, resulting confusion in equilibrium states. Starting from a fully covariant expression to avoid this confusion, it has been shown in the present paper that the Juttner distribution is the maximum entropy state if we assume the Lorentz symmetry.

Abstract:
The Lorentz transform of black body radiation has been investigated from the view point of relativistic statistical mechanics. The result shows that the well known expression with the directional temperature can be derived based on the inverse temperature four vector. The directional temperature in the past literature was the result of mathematical manipulation and its physical meaning is not clear. The inverse temperature four vector has, in contrast, clear meaning to understand relativistic thermodynamical processes.

Abstract:
Response of a circularly rotating Unrh-DeWitt detector to the Minkowski vacuum is investigated. What the detector observes depends on the surface (three volume) to define it by the Hamiltonian. Detectors in the past literature were defined on a surface of a constant Minkowski time, and this is the reason why rotating detectors investigated so far resister particles. No particle is detected by a detector defined by the Hamiltonian on a surface normal to the detector's orbit, in agreement with the global analysis of vacua. A detector with drift motion superposed on the linear acceleration is also examined, to find the same effect.

Abstract:
The linear ac response of the vortex system is measured locally in Bi-2212 single crystals at various doping, using a miniature two-coil mutual-inductance technique. It was found that a step-like change in the local ac response takes place exactly at the first-order transition (FOT) temperature T_{FOT}(H) determined by a global dc magnetization measurement. The T_{FOT}(H) line in the H-T phase diagram becomes steeper with increasing doping. In the higher-field region where the FOT is not observed, the local ac response still shows a broadened but distinct feature, which can be interpreted to mark the growth of a short-range order in the vortex system.