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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139194 matches for " K. Murata "
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On a distribution property of the residual order of a (mod p), II
L. Murata,K. Chinen
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: Let a be a positive integer which is not a perfect h-th power with h greater than 1, and Q_a(x;4,j) be the set of primes p less than x such that the residual order of a(mod p) is congruent to j modulo 4. When j=0, 2, it is known that calculations of #Q_a(x;4,j) are simple, and we can get their natural densities unconditionally. On the contrary, when j=1, 3, the distribution properties of Q_a(x;4,j) are rather complicated. In this paper, which is a sequel of our previous paper (part I), under the assumption of Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, we determine completely the natural densities of #Q_a(x;4,j) for j=1, 3.
On a distribution property of the residual order of a (mod p)
K. Chinen,L. Murata
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: Let a be a positive integer greater than 1, and Q_a(x;k,j) be the set of primes p less than x such that the residual order of a(mod p) is congruent to j modulo k. In this paper, the natural densities of Q_a(x;4,j) (j=0,1,2,3) are considered. We assume a is square-free and a is congruent to 1 (mod 4). Then, for j=0, 2, we can prove unconditionally that their natural densities are equal to 1/3. On the contrary, for j=1, 3, we assume Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, then we can prove that their densities are equal to 1/6.
Insensitivity to Unethical Behavior in Dictator Game When Indirectly Intermediated-Implications of Indirect Blindness for Safety Management  [PDF]
Atsuo Murata
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.65020
Abstract: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that indirect mediation in behaviors leads to insensitivity to unethical behavior through a dictator game and to give some implications for safety management. The indirect involvement in the unethical behavior such as the violation of regulation is believed to lessen the responsibility and the criticism from others for the unethical behavior as compared to the direct involvement in it. The instruction condition for the evaluator of behavior in a dictator game was taken up as an experimental variable. Instruction condition 1 was to pay attention to the behavior of only a dictator. In instruction condition 2, the participant (evaluator) was required to review all players’ behavior and evaluate a dictator. It has been investigated whether allowing indirect actions (mediations) leads to reduced punishment as a function of the instruction condition. While the punishment to the indirectness did not get smaller for instruction condition 2, the punishment to the indirectness tended to get smaller only for instruction condition 1.
Cultural Difference and Cognitive Biases as a Trigger of Critical Crashes or Disasters
—Evidence from Case Studies of Human Factors Analysis
 [PDF]

Atsuo Murata
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.79029
Abstract: On the basis of the analysis of past case studies of crashes or disasters, it has been clarified how cultural difference and cognitive biases become a trigger of serious crashes or disasters. Heuristic-based biases such as confirmation bias, groupthink, and social loafing surely appeared in the process of crash or disaster breakout. Overconfidence-bases biases such as illusion of control, fallacy of plan, and optimistic bias are also ubiquitous in the route to a critical crash or disaster. Moreover, framing biases contribute to the distorted decision making, and eventually turn into the main cause of critical crash or disaster. In this way, as well as human factors or ergonomics approaches for designing man-machine systems, the prevention and the deletion of cognitive biases are indispensable for the preventing serious crashes or disasters from occurring. Until now, the distortion of decision making has not been discussed from the cultural differences of way of thinking. As well as a variety of cognitive biases, cultural difference in behavior is expected to be important for understanding the root causes of critical crash or disaster. We found that cultural difference distorted judgment through case studies of critical crashes or disasters. It was also demonstrated that considering cultural difference, as well as cognitive biases, is important to prevent irrational and biased decision making from occurring in safety management.
Symmetry and Z_2-Orbifolding Approach in Five-dimensional Lattice Gauge Theory
K. Ishiyama,M. Murata,H. So,K. Takenaga
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.123.257
Abstract: In a lattice gauge-Higgs unification scenario using a Z_2-orbifolded extra-dimension, we find a new global symmetry in a case of SU(2) bulk gauge symmetry. It is a global symmetry on sites in a fixed point with respect to Z_2-orbifolding, independent of the bulk gauge symmetry. It is shown that the vacuum expectation value of a Z_2-projected Polyakov loop is a good order parameter of the new symmetry. The effective theory on lattice is also discussed.
Effect of Intention on Outcome Bias in Decision Making—Implications for Safety Management  [PDF]
Atsuo Murata, Tomoko Nakamura
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.513053
Abstract: The evidence of outcome bias was explored in a two-player (Player 1: allocator and Player 2: evaluator) economic game experiment where the reward allocation was made between two players. The experimental factors were the intention of an allocator (Player 1), the type of chosen dice (selfish, fair, and generous), and the outcome (selfish, fair, and generous). The outcome bias occurred when the type of dice chosen by the allocator (Player 1) was not only a selfish one but also a generous one. The comparison between the two conditions (intentional and no-intentional conditions) definitely showed that Player 2 punished Player 1 to a larger extent when the outcome was disadvantageous for Player 2 (selfish outcome) and Player 2 rewarded Player 1 when the outcome was advantageous (generous outcome) irrespective of whether the die was chosen out of the three types intentionally or not. Moreover, the outcome bias was not observed when the outcome was fair. Thus, we could verify the hypothesis that we are readily got trapped in the outcome bias. Some implications were given for safety management that put more emphasis on the process than on the outcome.
Sleep Quality for Patients Receiving Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation and Nasal High-Flow Oxygen Therapy in an ICU: Two Case Studies  [PDF]
Hiroaki Murata, Yoko Yamaguchi
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.89045
Abstract: Aim: The purpose of this case study was to examine the sleep quality of patients receiving noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) or nasal high-flow oxygen therapy (NHF) in an intensive care unit and to investigate what types of nursing support are offered to such patients. Methods: We examined one patient each for NPPV and NHF. Polysomnography (PSG), review of the patient charts, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data for analysis. Results: Patients treated with NPPV or NHF demonstrated a noticeable reduction in deep sleep, with most of their sleep being shallow. Their sleep patterns varied greatly from those of healthy individuals. These results suggest that, in addition to experiencing extremely fragmented sleep, sleep in these patients was more likely to be interrupted by nursing interventions, such as during auscultation of breath sounds. Furthermore, it was revealed that “anxiety or discomfort that accompanies the mask or air pressure” in patients treated with NPPV and “discomfort that accompanies the nasal cannula or NHF circuit” in patients treated with NHF may be primary causes of disrupted sleep. Our results suggest a need for nursing care aimed at improving sleep quality in patients treated with NPPV or NHF.
Patient perspectives on Parkinson’s disease therapy in Japan and the United States: results of two patient surveys
Hattori N, Fujimoto K, Kondo T, Murata M, Stacy M
Patient Related Outcome Measures , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S29443
Abstract: tient perspectives on Parkinson’s disease therapy in Japan and the United States: results of two patient surveys Original Research (1453) Total Article Views Authors: Hattori N, Fujimoto K, Kondo T, Murata M, Stacy M Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 31 - 38 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S29443 Received: 24 December 2011 Accepted: 17 March 2012 Published: 11 July 2012 Nobutaka Hattori,1 Kenichi Fujimoto,2 Tomoyoshi Kondo,3 Miho Murata,4 Mark Stacy5 1Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi; 3Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama; 4Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 5Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Background: Despite evidence suggesting that patient attitudes towards therapy may influence treatment outcomes, the impact of these factors on treatment for Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. These two surveys, based in Japan and the US, investigated the attitudes of patients towards antiparkinsonian medications, the complications of these therapies, and how these differ across geographies. Methods: The US PRELUDE survey collected data from May 13 to May 20, 2003, from 300 interviews with patients with Parkinson’s disease from the National Parkinson Foundation. The Japanese survey was carried out from June to December 2008 in a stepwise manner using questionnaires (n = 3548) followed by interviews with those who had consented to participate in the questionnaire (n = 407). Both surveys assessed the attitudes of patients towards therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications. Results: Dyskinesia was not a major challenge of therapy for Parkinson’s disease, and wearing-off caused greater concern in the US, while hallucinations had a greater emphasis in Japan. Patients who had previously experienced dyskinesia were less concerned about this side effect than those who had not. Although pill burden was thought to be a concern in the US, Japanese patients did not indicate that pill burden would limit their drug intake. There were also discrepancies between the perspectives and concerns of patients and those of their treating physicians. Conclusion: Recognizing patient perspectives regarding therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications, as well as certain cultural influences, is important in the management of parkinsonian symptoms. Acknowledging these concerns may improve the standard of care in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In addition, improved patient education and effective patient–physician communication in both countries may improve compliance and treatment outcomes in patients with the disease.
Clinical features of single and repeated globe rupture after penetrating keratoplasty
Murata N, Yokogawa H, Kobayashi A, Yamazaki N, Sugiyama K
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S42117
Abstract: ical features of single and repeated globe rupture after penetrating keratoplasty Case Series (492) Total Article Views Authors: Murata N, Yokogawa H, Kobayashi A, Yamazaki N, Sugiyama K Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:7 Pages 461 - 465 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S42117 Received: 27 December 2012 Accepted: 14 January 2013 Published: 05 March 2013 Noriaki Murata, Hideaki Yokogawa, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Yamazaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Background: In this paper, we report our experience of the clinical features of single and repeated globe rupture after penetrating keratoplasty. Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of single and repeated globe ruptures following keratoplasty in eight eyes from seven consecutive patients referred to Kanazawa University Hospital over a 10-year period from January 2002 to March 2012. We analyzed their ophthalmic and demographic data, including age at time of globe rupture, incidence, time interval between keratoplasty and globe rupture, cause of rupture, complicated ocular damage, and visual outcome after surgical repair. Results: Five patients (71.4%) experienced a single globe rupture and two patients (28.6%) experienced repeated globe ruptures. Patient age at the time of globe rupture was 75.4 ± 6.8 (range 67–83) years. Four of the patients were men and three were women. During the 10-year study period, the incidence of globe rupture following penetrating keratoplasty was 2.8%. The time interval between penetrating keratoplasty and globe rupture was 101 ± 92 months (range 7 months to 23 years). The most common cause of globe rupture in older patients was a fall (n = 5, 79.8 ± 3.7 years, all older than 67 years). Final best-corrected visual acuity was .20/200 in three eyes (37.5%). In all except one eye, globe rupture involved the graft-host junction; in the remaining eye, the rupture occurred after disruption of the extracapsular cataract extraction wound by blunt trauma. Conclusion: Preventative measures should be taken to avoid single and repeated ocular trauma following penetrating keratoplasty.
Patient perspectives on Parkinson’s disease therapy in Japan and the United States: results of two patient surveys
Hattori N,Fujimoto K,Kondo T,Murata M
Patient Related Outcome Measures , 2012,
Abstract: Nobutaka Hattori,1 Kenichi Fujimoto,2 Tomoyoshi Kondo,3 Miho Murata,4 Mark Stacy51Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi; 3Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama; 4Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 5Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USABackground: Despite evidence suggesting that patient attitudes towards therapy may influence treatment outcomes, the impact of these factors on treatment for Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. These two surveys, based in Japan and the US, investigated the attitudes of patients towards antiparkinsonian medications, the complications of these therapies, and how these differ across geographies.Methods: The US PRELUDE survey collected data from May 13 to May 20, 2003, from 300 interviews with patients with Parkinson’s disease from the National Parkinson Foundation. The Japanese survey was carried out from June to December 2008 in a stepwise manner using questionnaires (n = 3548) followed by interviews with those who had consented to participate in the questionnaire (n = 407). Both surveys assessed the attitudes of patients towards therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications.Results: Dyskinesia was not a major challenge of therapy for Parkinson’s disease, and wearing-off caused greater concern in the US, while hallucinations had a greater emphasis in Japan. Patients who had previously experienced dyskinesia were less concerned about this side effect than those who had not. Although pill burden was thought to be a concern in the US, Japanese patients did not indicate that pill burden would limit their drug intake. There were also discrepancies between the perspectives and concerns of patients and those of their treating physicians.Conclusion: Recognizing patient perspectives regarding therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications, as well as certain cultural influences, is important in the management of parkinsonian symptoms. Acknowledging these concerns may improve the standard of care in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In addition, improved patient education and effective patient–physician communication in both countries may improve compliance and treatment outcomes in patients with the disease.Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, patient concerns, dyskinesia, wearing-off, hallucinations
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