Abstract:
We calculate the photonic band gap of triply periodic bicontinuous cubic structures and of tubular structures constructed from the skeletal graphs of triply periodic minimal surfaces. The effect of the symmetry and topology of the periodic dielectric structures on the existence and the characteristics of the gaps is discussed. We find that the C(I2-Y**) structure with Ia3d symmetry, a symmetry which is often seen in experimentally realized bicontinuous structures, has a photonic band gap with interesting characteristics. For a dielectric contrast of 11.9 the largest gap is approximately 20% for a volume fraction of the high dielectric material of 25%. The midgap frequency is a factor of 1.5 higher than the one for the (tubular) D and G structures.

Abstract:
This review gives a survey of numerical algorithms and software to simulate quantum computers.It covers the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum algorithms and includes a few examples that illustrate the use of simulation software for ideal and physical models of quantum computers.

Abstract:
We discuss a discrete-event, particle-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of Maxwell's theory and quantum theory by generating detection events one-by-one. This event-based approach gives a unified cause-and-effect description of quantum optics experiments such as single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, quantum eraser, double-slit, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments, and various neutron interferometry experiments at a level of detail which is not covered by conventional quantum theoretical descriptions. We illustrate the approach by application to single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments and single-neutron interferometry experiments that violate a Bell inequality.

Abstract:
Mainstream interpretations of quantum theory maintain that violations of the Bell inequalities deny at least either realism or Einstein locality. Here we investigate the premises of the Bell-type inequalities by returning to earlier inequalities presented by Boole and the findings of Vorob'ev as related to these inequalities. These findings together with a space-time generalization of Boole's elements of logic lead us to a completely transparent Einstein local counterexample from everyday life that violates certain variations of the Bell inequalities. We show that the counterexample suggests an interpretation of the Born rule as a pre-measure of probability that can be transformed into a Kolmogorov probability measure by certain Einstein local space-time characterizations of the involved random variables.

Abstract:
It is demonstrated that the three-slit interference, as obtained from explicit solutions of Maxwell's equations for realistic models of three-slit devices, including an idealized version of the three-slit device used in a recent three-slit experiment with light (U. Sinha {\sl et al.}, Science 329, 418 (2010)), is nonzero. The hypothesis that the three-slit interference should be zero is the result of dropping the one-to-one correspondence between the symbols in the mathematical theory and the different experimental configurations, opening the route to conclusions that cannot be derived from the theory proper. It is also shown that under certain experimental conditions, this hypothesis is a good approximation.

Abstract:
This paper discusses the role of education in preventing HIV in children and young people in sub-Sahara Africa and presents the results of policy advisory research conducted on behalf of the Belgian Development Cooperation. The research consisted of a literature review and a field study in Rwanda. Relative to the high number of HIV prevention activities in sub-Sahara Africa, there is a limited number of scientific data on HIV risk reduction interventions for young people in this region. Longitudinal studies are especially scarce. Preliminary results show that many interventions have only a marginal impact on reducing sexual risk behaviour. Factors influencing programme effectiveness include the consistency and accuracy of messages and information, the provision of life-skills, social support and access to contraceptives, the intensity and duration of the programme, the training of the facilitators and the age of the target population. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has a potentially devastating impact on the education sector. Because few countries have monitoring systems in place that quantify the absenteeism, morbidity and mortality of teachers and students infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS, there is only anecdotal evidence available for illustrating this impact. The final section discusses the current gaps in research and the important role of theory in increasing the impact and improving the evaluations of HIV/AIDS education interventions.

Abstract:
We present a computer simulation model for the Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiment that is entirely particle-based and reproduces the results of wave theory. The model is solely based on experimental facts, satisfies Einstein's criterion of local causality and does not require knowledge of the solution of a wave equation. The simulation model is fully consistent with earlier work and provides another demonstration that it is possible to give a particle-only description of wave phenomena, rendering the concept of wave-particle duality superfluous.

Abstract:
A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a unified description of multiple-beam fringes of a plane parallel plate, single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, photon tunneling, quantum erasers, two-beam interference, double-slit, and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments.

Abstract:
The magnetic energy-level diagrams for models of the Mn12 and V15 molecule are calculated using the Lanczos method with full orthogonalization and a Chebyshev-polynomial-based projector method. The effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the appearance of energy-level repulsions and its relevance to the observation of steps in the time-dependent magnetization data is studied. We assess the usefulness of simplified models for the description of the zero-temperature magnetization dynamics.

Abstract:
We study the relation between the acquisition and analysis of data and quantum theory using a probabilistic and deterministic model for photon polarizers. We introduce criteria for efficient processing of data and then use these criteria to demonstrate that efficient processing of the data contained in single events is equivalent to the observation that Malus' law holds. A strictly deterministic process that also yields Malus' law is analyzed in detail. We present a performance analysis of the probabilistic and deterministic model of the photon polarizer. The latter is an adaptive dynamical system that has primitive learning capabilities. This additional feature has recently been shown to be sufficient to perform event-by-event simulations of interference phenomena, without using concepts of wave mechanics. We illustrate this by presenting results for a system of two chained Mach-Zehnder interferometers, suggesting that systems that perform efficient data processing and have learning capability are able to exhibit behavior that is usually attributed to quantum systems only.