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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 494496 matches for " K. M. Heeger "
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Evidence for Neutrino Mass: A Decade of Discovery
K. M. Heeger
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Neutrino mass and mixing are amongst the major discoveries of recent years. From the observation of flavor change in solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments to the measurements of neutrino mixing with terrestrial neutrinos, recent experiments have provided consistent and compelling evidence for the mixing of massive neutrinos. The discoveries at Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem and demand that we make the first significant revision of the Standard Model in decades. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay probe the particle nature of neutrinos and continue to place limits on the effective mass of the neutrino. Possible signs of neutrinoless double-beta decay will stimulate neutrino mass searches in the next decade and beyond. I review the recent discoveries in neutrino physics and the current evidence for massive neutrinos.
Long-Term Testing and Properties of Acrylic for the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors
M. Krohn,B. R. Littlejohn,K. M. Heeger
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment has recently measured the neutrino mixing parameter sin22{\theta}13 by observing electron antineutrino disappearance over kilometer-scale baselines using six antineutrino detectors at near and far distances from reactor cores at the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Liquid scintillator contained in transparent target vessels is used to detect electron antineutrinos via the inverse beta-decay reaction. The Daya Bay experiment will operate for about five years yielding a precision measurement of sin22{\theta}13. We report on long-term studies of poly(methyl methacrylate) known as acrylic, which is the primary material used in the fabrication of the target vessels for the experiment's antineutrino detectors. In these studies, acrylic samples are subjected to gaseous and liquid environmental conditions similar to those experienced during construction, transport, and operation of the Daya Bay acrylic target vessels and detectors. Mechanical and optical stability of the acrylic as well as its interaction with detector liquids is reported.
Multiple Detectors for a Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Search Near Reactors
K. M. Heeger,B. R. Littlejohn,H. P. Mumm
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Reactor antineutrino experiments have the ability to search for neutrino oscillations independent of reactor flux predictions using a relative measurement of the neutrino flux and spectrum across a range of baselines. The range of accessible oscillation parameters are determined by the baselines of the detector arrangement. We examine the sensitivity of short-baseline experiments with more than one detector and discuss the optimization of a second, far detector. The extended reach in baselines of a 2-detector experiment will improve sensitivity to short-baseline neutrino oscillations while also increasing the ability to distinguish between 3+1 mixing and other non-standard models.
Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 7: Underground Laboratory Capabilities
M. G. Gilchriese,P. Cushman,K. Heeger,J. Klein,K. Scholberg,H. Sobel,M. Witherell
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 7, on Underground Laboratory Capabilities, discusses the prospects and requirements for large underground experiments such as those for neutrino physics, proton decay, and dark matter.
UV Degradation of the Optical Properties of Acrylic for Neutrino and Dark Matter Experiments
Bryce Littlejohn,K. M. Heeger,T. Wise,E. Gettrust,M. Lyman
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/4/09/T09001
Abstract: UV-transmitting (UVT) acrylic is a commonly used light-propagating material in neutrino and dark matter detectors as it has low intrinsic radioactivity and exhibits low absorption in the detectors' light producing regions, from 350 nm to 500 nm. Degradation of optical transmittance in this region lowers light yields in the detector, which can affect energy reconstruction, resolution, and experimental sensitivities. We examine transmittance loss as a result of short- and long-term UV exposure for a variety of UVT acrylic samples from a number of acrylic manufacturers. Significant degradation peaking at 343 nm was observed in some UVT acrylics with as little as three hours of direct sunlight, while others exhibited softer degradation peaking at 310 nm over many days of exposure to sunlight. Based on their measured degradation results, safe time limits for indoor and outdoor UV exposure of UVT acrylic are formulated.
Experimental Parameters for a Reactor Antineutrino Experiment at Very Short Baselines
K. M. Heeger,B. R. Littlejohn,H. P. Mumm,M. N. Tobin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.073008
Abstract: Reactor antineutrinos are used to study neutrino oscillation, search for signatures of non-standard neutrino interactions, and to monitor reactor operation for safeguard applications. The flux and energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos can be predicted from the decays of the nuclear fission products. A comparison of recent reactor calculations with past measurements at baselines of 10-100m suggests a 5.7% deficit. Precision measurements of reactor antineutrinos at very short baselines O(1-10 m) can be used to probe this anomaly and search for possible oscillations into sterile neutrino species. This paper studies the experimental requirements for a new reactor antineutrino measurement at very short baselines and calculates the sensitivity of various scenarios. We conclude that an experiment at a typical research reactor provides 5{\sigma} discovery potential for the favored oscillation parameter space with 3 years of data collection.
Search for Sterile Neutrinos with a Radioactive Source at Daya Bay
D. A. Dwyer,K. M. Heeger,B. R. Littlejohn,P. Vogel
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.093002
Abstract: The far site detector complex of the Daya Bay reactor experiment is proposed as a location to search for sterile neutrinos with > eV mass. Antineutrinos from a 500 kCi 144Ce-144Pr beta-decay source (DeltaQ=2.996 MeV) would be detected by four identical 20-ton antineutrino targets. The site layout allows flexible source placement; several specific source locations are discussed. In one year, the 3+1 sterile neutrino hypothesis can be tested at essentially the full suggested range of the parameters Delta m^2_{new} and sin^22theta_{new} (90% C.L.). The backgrounds from six nuclear reactors at >1.6 km distance are shown to be manageable. Advantages of performing the experiment at the Daya Bay far site are described.
Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System
H. R. Band,J. J. Cherwinka,M-C. Chu,K. M. Heeger,M. W. Kwok,K. Shih,T. Wise,Q. Xiao
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/11/P11029
Abstract: The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.
The low-temperature energy calibration system for the CUORE bolometer array
S. Sangiorgio,L. M. Ejzak,K. M. Heeger,R. H. Maruyama,A. Nucciotti,M. Olcese,T. S. Wise,A. L. Woodcraft
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3292432
Abstract: The CUORE experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0nDBD) of 130Te using an array of 988 TeO_2 bolometers operated at 10 mK in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). The detector is housed in a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by pulse tubes and a high-power dilution refrigerator. The TeO_2 bolometers measure the event energies, and a precise and reliable energy calibration is critical for the successful identification of candidate 0nDBD and background events. The detector calibration system under development is based on the insertion of 12 gamma-sources that are able to move under their own weight through a set of guide tubes that route them from deployment boxes on the 300K flange down into position in the detector region inside the cryostat. The CUORE experiment poses stringent requirements on the maximum heat load on the cryostat, material radiopurity, contamination risk and the ability to fully retract the sources during normal data taking. Together with the integration into a unique cryostat, this requires careful design and unconventional solutions. We present the design, challenges, and expected performance of this low-temperature energy calibration system.
Low-Background Monitoring Cameras for the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors
H. R. Band,J. J. Cherwinka,K. M. Heeger,P. Hinrichs,M. C. McFarlane,W. Wang,D. M. Webber,T. Wise,Q. Xiao
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is designed to measure the neutrino mixing angle theta13 to world-leading precision. The experiment deploys identical antineutrino detectors at distances of 400-1900m from six reactors in Daya Bay, China. Each detector incorporates two general-purpose monitoring cameras to ensure their safe construction, transportation and operation. The cameras must meet usage goals while satisfying stringent constraints on radioactivity, materials compatibility, interference and reliability. This article describes the system design, integration, operation and performance.
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