Abstract:
The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is a popular model in the LB community for simulating multiphase flows. Recently, several thermal LB models, which are based on the pseudopotential LB model and constructed within the framework of the double-distribution-function LB method, were proposed to simulate thermal multiphase flows [G. H\'azi and A. M\'arkus, Phys. Rev. E 77, 026305 (2008); L. Biferale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 104502 (2012); S. Gong and P. Cheng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 4923 (2012)]. The objective of the present paper is to show that the effect of the forcing term on the temperature equation must be eliminated in the pseudopotential LB modeling of thermal flows. First, the effect of the forcing term on the temperature equation is shown via the Chapman-Enskog analysis. For comparison, alternative treatments that are free from the forcing-term effect are provided. Subsequently, numerical investigations are performed for two benchmark tests. The numerical results clearly show that the existence of the forcing-term effect will lead to significant numerical errors in the pseudopotential LB modeling of thermal flows.

Abstract:
In this paper, we aim to address an important issue about the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model, which has attracted much attention as a mesoscopic model for simulating interfacial dynamics of complex fluids, but suffers from the problem that the surface tension cannot be tuned independently of the density ratio. In the literature, a multi-range potential was devised to adjust the surface tension [Sbragaglia et al., Phys. Rev. E 75, 026702 (2007)]. However, it was recently found that the density ratio of the system will be changed when the multi-range potential is employed to adjust the surface tension. A new approach is therefore proposed in the present work. The basic strategy is to add a source term to the LB equation so as to tune the surface tension of the pseudopotential LB model. The proposed approach can guarantee that the adjustment of the surface tension does not affect the mechanical stability condition of the pseudopotential LB model, and thus provides a separate control of the surface tension and the density ratio. Meanwhile, it still retains the mesoscopic feature and the computational simplicity of the pseudopotential LB model. Numerical simulations are carried out for stationary droplets, capillary waves, and droplet splashing on a thin liquid film. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of achieving a tunable surface tension over a very wide range and can keep the density ratio unchanged when adjusting the surface tension.

Abstract:
Monte Carlo techniques with importance sampling have been extensively applied to lattice gauge theory in the Lagrangian formulation. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to compute the excited states using the conventional Monte Carlo algorithm. Our recently developed approach: the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method, has been designed to overcome the difficulties of the conventional approach. In this paper, we extend the method to many body systems and quantum field theory. The Klein-Gordon field theory is used as a testing ground.

Abstract:
Monte Carlo techniques have been widely employed in statistical physics as well as in quantum theory in the Lagrangian formulation. However, in the conventional approach, it is extremely difficult to compute the excited states. Here we present a different algorithm: the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method, designed to overcome the difficulties of the conventional approach. As a new example, application to the Klein-Gordon field theory is shown.

Abstract:
The pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is a widely used multiphase model in the LB community. In this model, an interaction force, which is usually implemented via a forcing scheme, is employed to mimic the molecular interactions that cause phase segregation. The forcing scheme is therefore expected to play an important role in the pseudo-potential LB model. In this paper, we aim to address some key issues about forcing schemes in the pseudo-potential LB model. Firstly, theoretical and numerical analyses will be made for Shan-Chen's forcing scheme and the exact-difference-method (EDM) forcing scheme. The nature of these two schemes and their recovered macroscopic equations will be shown. Secondly, through a theoretical analysis, we will reveal the physics behind the phenomenon that different forcing schemes exhibit different performances in the pseudo-potential LB model. Moreover, based on the analysis, we will present an improved forcing scheme and numerically demonstrate that the improved scheme can be treated as an alternative approach for achieving thermodynamic consistency in the pseudo-potential LB model.

Abstract:
In order to solve quantum field theory in a non-perturbative way, Lagrangian lattice simulations have been very successful. Here we discuss a recently proposed alternative Hamiltonian lattice formulation - the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian. In order to show its working in the case of the scalar $\Phi^{4}_{1+1}$ model, we have computed thermodynamic functions like free energy, average energy, entropy and specific heat. We find good agreement between the results from the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian and standard Lagrangian lattice computations. However, the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian results show less fluctuations under variation of temperature. We address properties of the MC Hamiltonian, like a finite temperature window, and scaling properties. Also we discuss possible future applications - like quantum chaos in many-body systems, the non-perturbative computation of wave functions of elementary particles, as well as scattering amplitudes in high energy physics.

Abstract:
A generalization of the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model for the simulation of hydrodynamics is presented, which takes into account the difference and the frame-independence of the relaxation of non-hydrodynamic modes. The present model retains the computationally efficient standard LBGK form with the generalized equilibrium explicitly derived. The two-dimensional realization on the standard lattice is discussed in detail. Performance of the model is assessed through a shear layer simulation and enhanced stability and accuracy with respect to the standard LBGK are reported. The results demonstrate that the present model is a useful upgrade of the standard LBGK without compromising its computational efficiency and accuracy.

Abstract:
In this paper, we aim to investigate the implementation of contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting at a large density ratio. The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 49, 2941 (1994)] is a popular mesoscopic model for simulating multiphase flows and interfacial dynamics. In this model, the contact angle is usually realized by a fluid-solid interaction. Two widely used fluid-solid interactions: the density-based interaction and the pseudopotential-based interaction, as well as a modified pseudopotential-based interaction formulated in the present paper, are numerically investigated and compared in terms of the achievable contact angles, the maximum and the minimum densities, and the spurious currents. It is found that the pseudopotential-based interaction works well for simulating small static (liquid) contact angles, however, is unable to reproduce static contact angles close to 180 degrees. Meanwhile, it is found that the proposed modified pseudopotential-based interaction performs better in light of the maximum and the minimum densities and is overall more suitable for simulating large contact angles as compared with the other two types of fluid-solid interactions. Furthermore, the spurious currents are found to be enlarged when the fluid-solid interaction force is introduced. Increasing the kinematic viscosity ratio between the vapor and liquid phases is shown to be capable of reducing the spurious currents caused by the fluid-solid interactions.

Abstract:
We present a new way to compute thermodynamical observables on the lattice. We compute excited states and thermodynamical functions in the scalar model via the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian technique. We find agreement with standard Lagrangian lattice calculations, but observe lesser fluctuations in the results from the MC Hamiltonian.

Abstract:
We discuss $QCD$ in the Hamiltonian frame work. We treat finite density $QCD$ in the strong coupling regime. We present a parton-model inspired regularisation scheme to treat the spectrum ($\theta$-angles) and distribution functions in $QED_{1+1}$. We suggest a Monte Carlo method to construct low-dimensionasl effective Hamiltonians. Finally, we discuss improvement in Hamiltonian $QCD$.