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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 554861 matches for " K. A. Venn "
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An upper limit on the sulphur abundance in HE 1327-2326
P. Bonifacio,E. Caffau,K. A. Venn,D. L. Lambert
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219537
Abstract: Context: Star HE 1327-2326 is a unique object, with the lowest measured iron abundance ([Fe/H] ~ -6) and a peculiar chemical composition that includes large overabundances of C, N, and O with respect to iron. One important question is whether the chemical abundances in this star reflect the chemical composition of the gas cloud from which it was formed or if they have been severely affected by other processes, such as dust-gas winnowing. Aims: We measure or provide an upper limit to the abundance of the volatile element sulphur, which can help to discriminate between the two scenarios. Methods: We observed HE 1327-2326 with the high resolution infra-red spectrograph CRIRES at the VLT to observe the S I lines of Multiplet 3 at 1045 nm. Results: We do not detect the S I line. A 3sigma$upper limit on the equivalent width (EW) of any line in our spectrum is EW<0.66 pm. Using either one-dimensional static or three-dimensional hydrodynamical model-atmospheres, this translates into a robust upper limit of [S/H]<-2.6. Conclusions: This upper limit does not provide conclusive evidence for or against dust-gas winnowing, and the evidence coming from other elements (e.g., Na and Ti) is also inconclusive or contradictory. The formation of dust in the atmosphere versus an origin of the metals in a metal-poor supernova with extensive "fall-back" are not mutually exclusive. It is possible that dust formation distorts the peculiar abundance pattern created by a supernova with fall-back, thus the abundance ratios in HE 1327-2326 may be used to constrain the properties of the supernova(e) that produced its metals, but with some caution.
Boron in the Small Magellanic Cloud: A Novel Test of Light Element Production
A. M. Brooks,K. A. Venn,D. L. Lambert,M. Lemke,K. Cunha,V. V. Smith
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/340662
Abstract: Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of the B III resonance line at 2066A have been obtained and analyzed for two Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) B-type stars. While boron is not detected in either star, upper limits to the boron abundance are set, with 12+log(B/H) le 1.6 for both AV 304 and NGC 346-637. The upper limits are consistent with the relationship between boron and oxygen previously reported for Galactic disk stars. The SMC upper limits are discussed in light of that galaxy's star formation history, present oxygen abundance, and its present cosmic ray flux. The UV spectrum has also been used to determine the iron-group abundances in the SMC stars. For AV 304, [Fe/H]=-0.6 pm 0.2, from both an absolute and a differential analysis (with respect to the Galactic B-type star HD 36591). This is consistent with results from A-F supergiants in the SMC. A lower iron abundance is found for NGC 346-637, [Fe/H]=-1.0 pm 0.3, but this is in good agreement with the supergiant iron abundances in NGC 330,another young SMC cluster. We propose NGC 346-637 may be an unrecognized binary though, which complicates its spectral analysis.
VLT/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: II. Implications for Understanding Galaxy Evolution
Eline Tolstoy,K. A. Venn,M. Shetrone,F. Primas,V. Hill,A. Kaufer,T. Szeifert
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345967
Abstract: We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of numerous elements in these low mass stars with a range of ages (1-15Gyr old). This means that we can effectively measure the chemical evolution of these galaxies WITH TIME. Our results show a significant spread in metallicity with age, but an overall trend consistent with what might be expected from a closed (or perhaps leaky) box chemical evolution scenario over the last 10-15Gyr. We notice that each of these galaxies show broadly similar abundance patterns for all elements measured. This suggests a fairly uniform progression of chemical evolution with time, despite quite a large range of star formation histories. It seems likely that these galaxies had similar initial conditions, and evolve in a similar manner with star formation occurring at a uniformly low rate, even if at different times. With our accurate measurements we find evidence for small variations in abundances which are correlated to variations in star formation histories. The alpha-elements suggest that dSph chemical evolution has not been affected by very high mass stars (>15-20 Msun). The abundance patterns we measure for stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies are significantly different from those typically observed in the disk, bulge and inner-halo of our Galaxy. This suggests that it is NOT possible to construct a significant fraction of our Galaxy from STARS formed in these dwarf spheroidal galaxies which subsequently merged into our own. Any merger scenario involving dSph has to occur in the very early Universe whilst they are still gas rich, so the majority of mass transfer is gas, and few stars.
VLT/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: I. Nucleosynthesis and Abundance Ratios
M. Shetrone,K. A. Venn,E. Tolstoy,F. Primas,V. Hill,A. Kaufer
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345966
Abstract: We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We measure the abundances of alpha, iron peak, s and r-process elements. No dSph giants in our sample show the deep mixing abundance pattern seen in nearly all globular clusters. At a given metallicity, the dSph giants exhibit lower [el/Fe] abundance ratios for the alpha elements than stars in the Galactic halo. This can be caused by a slow star formation rate and contribution from Type Ia SN, and/or a small star formation event (low total mass) and mass dependent Type II SN yields. Differences in the even-Z [el/Fe] ratios between these galaxies, as well as differences in the evolution of the s&r-process elements are interpreted in terms of their star formation histories. Comparison of the dSph abundances with those of the Galactic halo reveals some consistencies. In particular, we find stars that mimic the abundance pattern found by Nissen & Shuster (1997) for metal-rich, high R_max, high z_max halo stars, supporting their suggestion that disrupted dSph's may explain up to 50% of the metal-rich halo. A comparison with the metal-poor Galactic halo reveal no consistencies suggesting that the majority of the metal-poor Galactic halo could not have been formed from objects similar to these dSph. Finally, we use the dSph abundances to place new constraints on the nucleosynthetic origins, including Cu and Mn which are more consistent with metallicity dependent SN yields than the more commonly assumed SN Ia production.
Analysis of Four A-F Supergiants in M31 from Keck HIRES Spectroscopy
Kim A. Venn,J. K. McCarthy,D. J. Lennon,N. Przybilla,R. P. Kudritzki,M. Lemke
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/309491
Abstract: The first stellar abundances in M31 are presented, based on Keck I HIRES spectroscopy and model atmospheres analyses of three A-F supergiants, 41-2368, 41-3712, and A-207. We also present the preliminary analysis of a fourth star, 41-3654. We find that the stellar oxygen abundances are in good agreement with those determined from nebular studies, even though the stars do {\it not} show a clear radial gradient in oxygen. The uncertainties in the stellar abundances are smaller than the range in the nebular results, making these stars ideal objects for further studies of the distribution of oxygen in M31. We show that the stars can be used to study the abundance distributions of other elements as well, including iron-group and heavier elements. The A-F supergiants also provide direct information on the metallicity and reddening of nearby Cepheid stars. We have examined the metallicity and reddening assumptions used for Cepheids within 1' of our targets and noted the differences from values used in the literature.
The Wind Momentum - Luminosity Relationship of Galactic A- and B- Supergiants
R. P. Kudritzki,J. Puls,D. J. Lennon,K. A. Venn,J. Reetz,E. Najarro,J. K. McCarthy,A. Herrero
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The Balmer lines of four A Ia - supergiants (spectral type A0 to A3) and fourteen B Ia and Ib - supergiants (spectral type B0 to B3) in the solar neighbourhood are analyzed by means of NLTE unified model atmospheres to determine the properties of their stellar winds, in particular their wind momenta. As in previous work for O-stars (Puls et al.) a tight relationship between stellar wind momentum and luminosity (`WLR'') is found. However, the WLR varies as function of spectral type. Wind momenta are strongest for O-supergiants, then decrease from early B (B0 and B1) to mid B (B1.5 to B3) spectral types and become stronger again for A-supergiants. The slope of the WLR appears to be steeper for A- and mid B-supergiants than for O-supergiants. The spectral type dependence is interpreted as an effect of ionization changing the effective number and the line strength distribution function of spectral lines absorbing photon momentum around the stellar flux maximum. This interpretation needs to be confirmed by theoretical calculations for radiation driven winds. A-supergiants in M31 observed with HIRES at the Keck telescope have wind momenta compatible with their galactic counterparts. The potential of the WLR as a new, independent extragalactic distance indicator is discussed. It is concluded that with ten to twenty objects, photometry with HST and medium resolution spectroscopy with 8m-telescopes from the ground distance moduli can be obtained with an accuracy of about 0.1m out to the Virgo and Fornax clusters of galaxies.
Boron Abundances in Main Sequence B-type Stars: A Test of Rotational Depletion during Main Sequence Evolution
K. A. Venn,A. M. Brooks,D. L. Lambert,M. Lemke,N. Langer,D. J. Lennon,F. P. Keenan
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/324435
Abstract: Boron abundances have been derived for seven main sequence B-type stars from HST STIS spectra around the B III 2066 A line. In two stars, boron appears to be undepleted with respect to the presumed initial abundance. In one star, boron is detectable but it is clearly depleted. In the other four stars, boron is undetectable implying depletions of 1 to 2 dex. Three of these four stars are nitrogen enriched, but the fourth shows no enrichment of nitrogen. Only rotationally induced mixing predicts that boron depletions are unaccompanied by nitrogen enrichments. The inferred rate of boron depletion from our observations is in good agreement with these predictions. Other boron-depleted nitrogen-normal stars are identified from the literature. Also, several boron-depleted nitrogen-rich stars are identified, and while all fall on the boron-nitrogen trend predicted by rotationally-induced mixing, a majority have nitrogen enrichments that are not uniquely explained by rotation. The spectra have also been used to determine iron-group (Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni) abundances. The seven B-type stars have near solar iron-group abundances, as expected for young stars in the solar neighborhood. We have also analysed the halo B-type star, PG0832+676. We find [Fe/H] = -0.88 +/- 0.10, and the absence of the B III line gives the upper limit [B/H]<2.5. These and other published abundances are used to infer the star's evolutionary status as a post-AGB star.
Enhancement of photo-responsivity of small gap, multiple tunnelling superconducting tunnel junctions due to quasiparticle multiplication
G. Brammertz,A. G. Kozorezov,R. den Hartog,P. Verhoeve,A. Peacock,J. K. Wigmore,D. Martin,R. Venn
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We recently predicted the formation of a highly non-equilibrium quasiparticle (qp) distribution in low TC multiple tunnelling superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) [1]. The situation arises through qp energy gain in cycles of successive forward and back tunnelling events in the absence of relaxation via sub-gap phonon emission. The qps can acquire sufficient energy to emit phonons, which break more Cooper pairs and release additional qps. In this paper we report theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of this process on photon detection by such an STJ. We derived a set of energy-dependent balance equations [2], which describe the kinetics of the qps and phonons, including the qp multiplication process described above. Solution of the balance equations gives the non-equilibrium distribution of the qps as a function of time and energy, and hence the responsivity of the STJ as a function of bias voltage. We compared the theoretical results with experiments on high quality, multiple-tunnelling Al STJs cooled to 35mK in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator, and illuminated with monochromatic photons with wavelengths between 250 and 1000 nm. It was found that in the larger junctions with the longest qp loss time, both responsivity and signal decay time increased rapidly with bias voltage. Excellent agreement was obtained between the observed effects and theoretical modelling.
Chemical abundances in the inner 5 kpc of the Galactic disk
S. J. Smartt,K. A. Venn,P. L. Dufton,D. J. Lennon,W. R. J. Rolleston,F. P. Keenan
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20000479
Abstract: High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral data are presented for four young B-type stars lying towards the Galactic Centre. Determination of their atmospheric parameters from their absorption line profiles, and uvby photometric measurement of the continua indicate that they are massive objects lying slightly out of the plane, and were probably born in the disk between 2.5-5 kpc from the Centre. We have carried out a detailed absolute and differential line-by-line abundance analyses of the four stars compared to two stars with very similar atmospheric parameters in the solar neighbourhood. The stars appear to be rich in all the well sampled chemical elements (C, N, Si, Mg, S, Al), except for oxygen. Oxygen abundances derived in the atmospheres of these four stars are very similar to that in the solar neighbourhood. If the photospheric composition of these young stars is reflective of the gaseous ISM in the inner Galaxy, then the values derived for the enhanced metals are in excellent agreement with the extrapolation of the Galactic abundance gradients previously derived by Rolleston et al. (2000) and others. However, the data for oxygen suggests that the inner Galaxy may not be richer than normal in this element, and the physical reasons for such a scenario are unclear.
First Stellar Abundances in NGC 6822 from VLT-UVES and Keck-HIRES Spectroscopy
K. A. Venn,D. J. Lennon,A. Kaufer,J. K. McCarthy,N. Przybilla,R. P. Kudritzki,M. Lemke,E. D. Skillman,S. J. Smartt
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318424
Abstract: We have obtained the first high resolution spectra of individual stars in the dwarf irregular galaxy, NGC 6822. The spectra of the two A-type supergiants were obtained at the VLT and Keck Observatories, using UVES and HIRES, respectively. A detailed model atmospheres analysis has been used to determine their atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances. The mean iron abundance from these two stars is $<$[Fe/H]$>=-$0.49 $\pm$0.22 ({\it $\pm$0.21}, with Cr yielding a similar underabundance, $<$[Cr/H]$>=-$0.50 $\pm$0.20 ({\it $\pm$0.16}). This confirms that NGC 6822 has a metallicity that is slightly higher than that of the SMC, and is the first determination of the present-day iron-group abundances in NGC 6822. The mean stellar oxygen abundance, 12+log(O/H)=8.36 $\pm$0.19 ({\it $\pm$0.21}),is in good agreement with the nebular oxygen results. Oxygen has the same underabundance as iron, $<$[O/Fe]$>$=+0.02 $\pm$0.20 ({\it $\pm$0.21}). This O/Fe ratio is very similar to that seen in the Magellanic Clouds, which supports the picture that chemical evolution occurs more slowly in these lower mass galaxies, although the O/Fe ratio is also consistent with that observed in comparatively metal-poor stars in the Galactic disk. Combining all of the available abundance observations for NGC 6822 shows that there is no trend in abundance with galactocentric distance. However, a subset of the highest quality data are consistent with a radial abundance gradient.
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