Abstract:
The temperature and chemical potential dependent surface tension of bags is introduced into the gas of quark-gluon bags model. The suggested model is solved analytically. It resolves a long standing problem of a unified description of the first and second order phase transition with the cross-over. Such an approach is necessary to model the complicated properties of quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter from the first principles of statistical mechanics. In addition to the deconfinement phase transition, we found that at the curve of a zero surface tension coefficient there must exist the surface induced phase tranition of the 2-nd or higher order, which separates the pure quark gluon plasma (QGP) from the cross-over states. Thus, the present model predicts that the critical endpoint of quantum chromodynamics is the tricritical endpoint.

Abstract:
Within an exactly solvable model I discuss an influence of the medium dependent finite width of QGP bags on their equation of state. It is shown that inclusion of such a width allows one to naturally resolve two conceptual problems of the QGP statistical description. On the basis of the proposed simple kinetic model for a sequential decay of heavy QGP bags formed in high energy elementary particle collisions it is argued that by measuring the energy dependence of life time of these bags it is possible to distinguish the case of critical point existence from the case of tricritical point.

Abstract:
Within an exactly solvable model I discuss the influence of the medium dependent finite width of quark gluon plasma (QGP) bags on their equation of state. It is shown that the large width of the QGP bags not only explains the observed deficit in the number of hadronic resonances, but also clarifies the reason why the heavy QGP bags cannot be directly observed as metastable states in a hadronic phase. I show how the model allows one to estimate the minimal value of the width of QGP bags being heavier than 2.5 GeV from a variety of the lattice QCD data and to get the minimal resonance width at zero temperature of about 600 MeV. The Regge trajectories of large and heavy QGP bags are established both in a vacuum and in a strongly interacting medium. It is shown that at high temperatures the average mass and width of the QGP bags behave in accordance with the upper bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the linear asymptotics), whereas at low temperatures (below a half of the Hagedorn temperature T_H [1] they obey the lower bound of the Regge trajectory asymptotics (the square root one). Thus, for temperatures below T_H/2 the spin of the QGP bags is restricted from above, whereas for temperatures above T_H/2 these bags demonstrate the typical Regge behavior consistent with the string models.

Abstract:
Here I discuss the major pitfalls and the most severe mistakes of the above mentioned paper. The thorough analysis shows that despite all the claims the present work has nothing to do with the thermalization process in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In contrast to the authors' beliefs I show that their main result is not derived, but is a combination of mathematical mistakes and hand waving arguments.

Abstract:
Here we thoroughly discuss the present status of the deconfinement phase transition signals outlined in the NICA White Paper 10.01. It is argued that none of the signals outlined in the NICA White Paper is prepared for experimental verification. At the same time we discuss the new irregularities and new signals of the deconfinement transition found recently within the realistic version of the hadron resonance gas model. All new findings evidence that the mixed quark-gluon-hadron phase can be reached at the center of mass energy of collision 4.3-4.9 GeV.

Abstract:
We discuss exact analytical solutions of a variety of statistical models recently obtained for finite systems by a novel powerful mathematical method, the Laplace-Fourier transform. Among them are a constrained version of the statistical multifragmentation model, the Gas of Bags Model and the Hills and Dales Model of surface partition. Thus, the Laplace-Fourier transform allows one to study the nuclear matter equation of state, the equation of state of hadronic and quark gluon matter and surface partitions on the same footing. A complete analysis of the isobaric partition singularities of these models is done for finite systems. The developed formalism allows us, for the first time, to exactly define the finite volume analogs of gaseous, liquid and mixed phases of these models from the first principles of statistical mechanics and demonstrate the pitfalls of earlier works. The found solutions may be used for building up a new theoretical apparatus to rigorously study phase transitions in finite systems. The strategic directions of future research opened by these exact results are also discussed.

Abstract:
The relativistic kinetic equations for the two domains separated by the hypersurface with both space- and time-like parts are derived. The particle exchange between the domains separated by the time-like boundaries generates source terms and modifies the collision term of the kinetic equation. The correct hydrodynamic equations for the ``hydro+cascade'' models are obtained and their differences from existing freeze-out models of the hadronic matter are discussed.

Abstract:
A detailed analysis of the coupled relativistic kinetic equations for two domains separated by a hypersurface having both space- and time-like parts is presented. Integrating the derived set of transport equations, we obtain the correct system of the hydro+cascade equations to model the relativistic nuclear collision process. Remarkably, the conservation laws on the boundary between domains conserve separately both the incoming and outgoing components of energy, momentum and baryonic charge. Thus, the relativistic kinetic theory generates twice the number of conservation laws compared to traditional hydrodynamics. Our analysis shows that these boundary conditions between domains, the three flux discontinuity, can be satisfied only by a special superposition of two cut-off distribution functions for the ``out'' domain. All these results are applied to the case of the phase transition between quark gluon plasma and hadronic matter. The possible consequences for an improved hydro+cascade description of the relativistic nuclear collisions are discussed. The unique properties of the three flux discontinuity and their effect on the space-time evolution of the transverse expansion are also analyzed. The possible modifications of both transversal radii from pion correlations generated by a correct hydro+cascade approach are discussed.

Abstract:
On the basis of exactly solvable models with the tricritical and critical endpoints I discuss the physical mechanism of endpoints formation which is similar to the usual liquids. It is demonstrated that the necessary condition for the transformation of the 1-st order deconfinement phase transition into the 2-nd order phase transition at the (tri)critical endpoint is the vanishing of surface tension coefficient of large/heavy QGP bags. Using the novel model of the confinement phenomenon I argue that the physical reason for the cross-over appearance at low baryonic densities is the negative value of QGP bag surface tension coefficient. This implies the existence of highly non-spherical or, probably, even fractal surfaces of large and heavy bags at and above the cross-over, which, perhaps, can be observed via some correlations. The model with the tricritical endpoint predicts that at the deconfinement transition line the volume (mass) distribution of large (heavy) QGP bags acquires the power law form at the endpoint only, while in the model with the critical endpoint such a power law exists inside the mixed phase. The role of finite width of QGP bags is also discussed.

Abstract:
We discuss exact analytical solutions of a variety of statistical models recently obtained for finite systems by a novel powerful mathematical method, the Laplace-Fourier transform. Among them are a constrained version of the statistical multifragmentation model, the Gas of Bags Model and the Hills and Dales Model of surface partition. Thus, the Laplace-Fourier transform allows one to study the nuclear matter equation of state, the equation of state of hadronic and quark gluon matter and surface partitions on the same footing. A complete analysis of the isobaric partition singularities of these models is done for finite systems. The developed formalism allows us, for the first time, to exactly define the finite volume analogs of gaseous, liquid and mixed phases of these models from the first principles of statistical mechanics and demonstrate the pitfalls of earlier works. The found solutions may be used for building up a new theoretical apparatus to rigorously study phase transitions in finite systems. The strategic directions of future research opened by these exact results are also discussed.